1 Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования «Российская академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации» СИБИРСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ А. М. Шуваева, Н. О. Шпак, Е. А. Крутько Иностранный язык (английский) Учебное пособие для студентов очной, заочной и дистанционной форм обучения по направлениям: Государственное и муниципальное управление; Управление персоналом; Юриспруденция; Экономика НОВОСИБИРСК 2014
2 ББК 81.2Англ-923 Ш 95 Издается в соответствии с планом учебно-методической работы Рецензенты: О. А. Береговая канд. филос. наук, доцент, доцент кафедры рекламы и связей с общественностью НГПУ; Т. И. Громогласова канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры иностранных языков Сибирского института управления филиала РАНХиГС Ш 95 Шуваева, А. М. Иностранный язык (английский) : учеб. пособие / А. М. Шуваева, Н. О. Шпак, Е. А. Крутько ; РАНХиГС, Сиб. ин-т упр. Новосибирск : Изд-во СибАГС, с. ; + 1 электрон. опт. диск (CD-ROM). Систем. требования : ПК от 486 DX66 МГц ; RAM от 256 МБ ; Windows 95 и выше ; зв. плата ; зв. колонки с усилителем и наушники. ISBN Данное учебное состоит из рекомендаций для студентов, вводного фонетического курса, шести лексико-грамматических разделов, грамматического справочника, справочника по письму и приложений, тематика которых определяется рабочей программой. Пособие адресовано студентам всех направлений бакалавриата, изучающим базовую часть английского языка на дневном и заочном отделениях, а также при дистанционном обучении. ISBN ББК 81.2Англ-923 ФГБОУ ВПО «Российская академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации»,
3 Contents Предисловие... 4 Рекомендации для студентов... 6 Вводный фонетический курс UNIT 1. WORK AND STUDY Topic 1. Self-presentation Topic 2. Work and Jobs Topic 3. Higher Education UNIT 2. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Topic 1.Business Meetings Topic 2. Telephoning Topic 3. Business Correspondence UNIT 3. LOOKING FOR A JOB Topic 1. Applying for a Job Topic 2. CV and Cover Letter Topic 3. Interview UNIT 4. STATE AND SOCIETY Topic 1. Countries and Cities Topic 2. Politics Topic 3. Bureaucracy UNIT 5: COMPANIES Topic 1. Forms of Business Organization Topic 2. Organizational Structure Topic 3. Company s History UNIT 6. MANAGEMENT Topic 1. Managers Topic 2. The Management Process Topic 3. Management Skills Speaking Bank Writing Reference (Справочник по письму) Grammar Reference (Грамматический справочник) Приложения ЗАКЛЮЧЕНИЕ
4 4 Предисловие Дисциплина «Иностранный язык (английский)» играет значительную роль в подготовке специалистов в области государственного и муниципального управления, управления персоналом, экономики и юриспруденции. Основной целью данного курса является обучение языку для делового общения. Весь курс выстроен таким образом, что темы основываются на общеупотребительной деловой лексике и базовой грамматике, которые являются доминирующими на первом этапе обучения. Задания пособия соответствуют требованиям к обучению иностранному языку и способствуют формированию у студентов коммуникативной компетенции. Упражнения в пособии формируют необходимые стратегии речевой коммуникации, развивают фонетические и лексико-грамматические навыки, умения аудирования, чтения, говорения и письма. Данное пособие разработано в соответствии с рабочей программой и состоит из рекомендаций для студентов, вводного фонетического курса, шести тематических разделов: «Работа и учеба», «Деловая коммуникация», «Поиск работы», «Государство и общество», «Компании», «Менеджмент», справочника по письму, грамматического справочника, приложений и библиографического списка. Каждый тематический раздел имеет единую структуру и состоит из трех подтем, включающих текст, лексико-грамматические упражнения, задания на аудирование, говорение, письмо и двух текстов для самостоятельного чтения. Весь основной лексико-грамматический материал изучается в первых трех подтемах, а в двух последних текстах для самостоятельной работы студенты развивают навыки поискового чтения. В каждом разделе предлагаются интерактивные задания, обучающие студентов работать в парах и малых группах, развивающие умения структурировать и связно выстраивать устные и письменные высказывания. В целом, в учебном пособии делается акцент на расширение активного и пассивного словаря студентов, на их подготовку к самостоятельной работе с иноязычным текстовым материалом.
5 В учебном плане заочного и дистанционного обучения много часов отводится на самостоятельную работу, поэтому в пособии представлен большой разъяснительный лексико-грамматический материал. В рекомендациях для студентов кратко изложено содержание всех лексико-грамматических тем и объяснено выполнение разных типов заданий на говорение, чтение, аудирование и письмо. В грамматическом справочнике представлены все изучаемые в данном пособии грамматические темы с примерами. В справочнике по письму изложена структура и даны примеры фраз для письменных работ. В конце пособия прилагаются приложения с таблицами неправильных глаголов, глаголов в активном и страдательном залоге и фразами для устной речи. К учебному пособию прилагается диск, включающий в себя аудиозаписи из разных учебных пособий: Johnson C. Intelligent Business. Pre-Intermediate Soars, J. New Headway Intermediate, Soars J. New Headway Pre-Intermediate, Evans D. Powerbase. Elementary и другие. Доцентом Шпак Натальей Олеговной написаны следующие части учебного пособия: введение, рекомендации для студентов, раздел 1 «Работа и учеба», раздел 3 «Поиск работы», раздел 4 «Государство и общество», справочник по письму, грамматический справочник и заключение. Старшим преподавателем Крутько Еленой Александровной разработан раздел 5 «Компании» и раздел 6 «Менеджмент». Преподавателем Шуваевой Аленой Михайловной написаны: вводный фонетический курс, раздел 2 «Деловая коммуникация» и приложения. Мы благодарим преподавателей кафедры иностранных языков и рецензентов: доцента, кандидата филологических наук Громогласову Татьяну Игоревну и доцента, кандидата философских наук Береговую Оксану Александровну за ценные рекомендации и помощь в написании учебного пособия. Авторы с благодарностью воспримут рекомендации по дальнейшему совершенствованию учебного пособия. В тексте пособия используется пиктограмма задания на аудирование. 5
6 РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ Данное пособие разработано в соответствии с рабочей программой, где для базового курса обучения иностранному языку предложены следующие лексико-грамматические разделы: 1 раздел вводный фонетический курс; тема «Work and Study» (Работа и учеба), включающая в себя три подтемы: «Self- Presentation» (О себе), «Work and Jobs» (Работа и профессии), «Higher Education» (Высшее образование); грамматика местоимения, глаголы to be, to have, оборот there is/are, настоящее простое (Present Simple) и настоящее длительное время (Present Continuous). По изученному разделу выполняются следующие задания: оформление личного письма о себе и устный ответ на тему «About Myself» (О себе). 2 раздел тема «Business Communication» (Деловая коммуникация), включающая в себя три подтемы: «Business Meetings» (Деловая встреча), «Telephoning» (Разговор по телефону) и «Business Correspondence» (Деловая переписка); грамматика способы выражения будущего: конструкция going to be, настоящее длительное время в значении будущего (Present Continuous), будущее простое время (Future Simple); модальные глаголы can, could, and would для выражения просьбы, разрешения и высказывания предложения. По изученному разделу выполняются следующие задания: оформление делового письма и устный ответ на тему «Business Communication» (Деловая коммуникация). 3 раздел тема «Looking for a Job» (Поиск работы), включающая в себя три подтемы: «Applying for a Job» (Устройство на работу), «CV and Cover Letter» (Написание автобиографии и заявления о приеме на работу) и «Interview» (Собеседование); грамматика настоящее совершенное время (Present Perfect), настоящее совершенное длительное время (Present Perfect Continuous), простое прошедшее время (Past Simple), прошедшее 6
7 длительное время (Past Continuous), прошедшее совершенное время (Past Perfect), модальные глаголы must, have to, should. По изученному разделу выполняются следующие задания: написание резюме и сопроводительного письма и устный ответ на тему «Applying for a Job» (Устройство на работу). 4 раздел тема «State and Society» (Государство и общество), включающая в себя три подтемы: «Countries and Cities» (Страны и города), «Bureaucracy» (Бюрократический аппарат), «Politics» (Политическое устройство); грамматика сравнительная степень прилагательных и наречий, условные предложения первого и второго типа. По изученному разделу выполняются следующие задания: написание сочинения-описания страны или города и устный ответ на тему «State and Society» (Государство и общество). 5 раздел тема «Companies» (Компании), включающая в себя три подтемы: «Forms of Business Organization» (Формы и виды организации), «Organizational Structure» (Структура организации), «Company s History» (История компании); грамматика пассивный залог (Passive Voice). По изученному разделу выполняются следующие задания: написание краткого изложения текста (summary) и устный ответ на тему «Company s Activity» (Деятельность компании). 6 раздел тема «Management» (Менеджмент), включающая в себя три подтемы: «Managers» (Менеджеры), «The Management Process» (Процесс управления), «Management Skills» (Навыки управления); грамматика повтор времен активного и страдательного залога (Active and Passive Voices). По изученному разделу выполняются следующие задания: написание краткого изложения текста (summary) и устный ответ на тему «Management» (Менеджмент). Рекомендации по выполнению заданий В каждом разделе студенты выполняют грамматические упражнения и упражнения на развитие навыков говорения, аудирования, чтения и письма. 7
8 Reading (Чтение) Общие рекомендации Выполняя задания к тексту, всегда сначала читайте вопрос или задание и только потом сам текст. Используйте подсказки в структуре текста. Например, заголовок обычно помогает определить основную идею текста, а ключевые предложения каждого абзаца содержат их краткое содержание и помогают определить ход мыслей автора. Использование этих приемов поможет вам выполнить задание. Выполняя задания, в тексте вы можете встретить незнакомые слова или выражения. Постарайтесь определить их значение, используя один из следующих приемов: определите, к какой части речи относится это слово; постарайтесь определить значение по контексту; определите значение, принимая во внимание тот факт, что английское слово может по звучанию быть похожим на соответствующее слово в вашем родном языке (но будьте осторожны с «ложными друзьями переводчика»); определите значение слова или выражения, на основе общего знания данной темы или культурного контекста. 1. Задание на установление соответствия приведенных утверждений прочитанному тексту (True / False). Выполняя задание, вам необходимо решить, согласуется ли данное предложение с информацией в тексте. Внимательно прочитайте и задание, и текст. Обращайте особое внимание на слова, которые на первый взгляд не играют важной роли в предложении. Задания также могут проверять понимание как отдельных предложений, так и целой части текста. В заданиях данного типа намерения автора могут иметь большое значение, но они не всегда выражены прямо и открыто. 2. Задание на множественный выбор из предложенных вариантов. Внимательно прочитайте вопросы (заголовки), а затем текст, к которому они относятся. В тексте найдите фрагменты, к кото- 8
9 рым относится каждый из вопросов. Помните, что эти фрагменты могут быть разной длины: это может быть одно слово, выражение, целое предложение или абзац. Определите один или два неверных ответа, согласно заданию. Обращайте внимание на детали неверные ответы могут содержать иную грамматическую форму или слегка измененную информацию из текста. Отметьте верный ответ и проверьте его правильность. Grammer (Грамматика) В учебном пособии помимо заданий на развитие навыков чтения, аудирования, говорения и письма (в соответствующих рубриках Reading, Listening, Speaking, Writing) даны упражнения по грамматике в рубрике Grammar. Для успешного выполнения грамматических заданий студентам предлагается изучить вначале теорию в грамматическом справочнике (Grammar Reference) в конце пособия. Listening (Аудирование) Общие рекомендации Перед тем как прослушать запись, внимательно прочитайте задание. Используя общие знания или догадку, попытайтесь представить себе, о чем будет говориться в записи. Подумайте, какого рода информация потребуется (например, цифры, время, имена собственные). В ходе прослушивания аудиотекста попытайтесь догадаться о значении незнакомых слов. Для этого проанализируйте контекст, в котором они звучат, определите, к какой части речи они относятся и что они могут означать. 1. Задание на установление соответствия приведенных утверждений прослушанному тексту (True / False). В заданиях такого типа порядок приведенных утверждений соответствует тому порядку, в каком информация дается в запи- 9
10 сях. Если одновременно чтение задания и прослушивание записи отвлекает вас от понимания содержания, сконцентрируйтесь только на прослушивании и попытайтесь запомнить как можно больше. Прослушайте запись первый раз и отметьте свои ответы. Во время второго прослушивания проверьте свои ответы. Не оставляйте вопросы без ответов. Если вы не уверены в ответе, попытайтесь догадаться. 2. Задание на множественный выбор. Перед тем как прослушать запись, прочитайте вопросы вместе с предложенными вариантами ответов. Во время прослушивания в первый раз отметьте возможные варианты ответа. Затем, перед вторым прослушиванием, внимательно прочитайте предложенные варианты ответа и выберите тот, который, по вашему мнению, подходит более других. Будьте осторожны с теми вариантами ответа, в которых встречаются те же слова и фразы, что звучат в записи. Помните, что правильные ответы должны, прежде всего, включать ту же информацию, что и запись, но это отнюдь не означает, что эта информация передается одними и теми же словами. 3. Задание на множественные соответствия. Во время прослушивания обращайте внимание на слова и выражения, характерные для данного места, либо данной личности, если в задании требуется определить, кто говорит, либо к кому обращена речь, либо место, где происходит беседа. Если в задании требуется соотнести заголовки, подзаголовки или предложения, которые подводят итог текста или его части, то, прослушав каждую часть, попробуйте кратко сформулировать главную мысль прослушанного. Помните, что заголовок или подзаголовок выражает краткое содержание или формулирует главную мысль фрагмента, но излагает это другими словами, не копируя аудиотекст. После первого прослушивания постарайтесь отметить (проверить) ответы, а во время второго прослушивания сконцентрируйтесь на той информации, которую вы пропустили или не поняли в первый раз. После повторного прослушивания заполните лист с ответами и еще раз проверьте правильность ответов. Не оставляйте ни 10
11 одного вопроса без ответа. Даже если вы не уверены в ответе, попробуйте догадаться. Speaking (Говорение) Общие рекомендации Внимательно прочитайте задание на говорение, где вам будет предложено подготовить тематическое монологическое высказывание или диалог с целью обмена информацией. Изучите структуру и требования к оформлению устного ответа в данных рекомендациях и выберите из приложения в конце пособия нужные вам фразы. 1. Презентация темы. Постарайтесь логически выстроить вашу презентацию. Продумайте структуру: вступительную, основную и заключительную части. Продумайте лексико-грамматическое наполнение темы. Презентация не должна включать в себя слишком официальную лексику и обороты, присущие только письменной речи. Выберите фразы для начала и завершения презентации, а также связующие слова и фразы, помогающие выстроить речь. Избегайте длинных и сложных предложений, так как в устной речи короткие предложения воспринимаются лучше. Если презентация темы будет сопровождаться показом слайдов в Power Point, то для подготовки компьютерной презентации вам необходимо учитывать следующее: количество слайдов не должно превышать 8 10; на слайдах размещать небольшую текстовую информацию; подбирать фон и шрифт для более комфортного восприятия и прочтения; не перегружать слайды картинками; на первом слайде указать тему и фамилию докладчика; на последнем слайде поблагодарить аудиторию за внимание; оформление и содержание слайдов должно помогать докладчику наглядно и доходчиво представить свою тему. 11
12 Проверьте текст на наличие лексико-грамматических ошибок, заучите вашу речь и проконтролируйте время вашей презентации (не более 5 10 минут). Будьте готовы к вопросам преподавателя и одногруппников по содержанию вашей презентации. 2. Диалогическая речь. Внимательно прочитайте текст с предлагаемой ситуацией (знакомство при встрече, разговор по телефону, интервью с работодателем) и распределите роли между участниками диалога. Наметьте структуру диалога: вступительные реплики приветствия, проигрывание ситуации, заключительные прощальные реплики. Перед тем как ответить, еще раз прочитайте свои реплики и исправьте возможные ошибки. В ходе проигрывания диалога по ролям контролируйте время, придерживаясь заданного преподавателем объема. Writing (Письмо) Общие рекомендации При выполнении письменного задания необходимо не только верно излагать нужную информацию, но и представлять собой связанное и логичное целое. Старайтесь использовать разные союзы и союзные слова для соединения частей предложения. Помните о начальных и конечных фразах, типичных для некоторых типов текста. Перед тем как написать окончательный вариант, проверьте логичность и связанность написанного. В ходе выполнения письменного задания контролируйте длину текста, придерживаясь заданного объема. При выражении своих чувств и мнения старайтесь избегать слишком эмоциональных и категоричных слов и выражений. Лучше употреблять безличные формы. Это делает ваши утверждения более убедительными и одновременно позволяет использовать более сложные и интересные грамматические структуры. Более подробные рекомендации по структуре и фразам для письменных заданий смотрите в Writing Reference. 12
13 1. Короткие тексты прагматического характера: написание рекомендаций; заполнение формы, анкеты. Прочитайте внимательно задание. Обратите внимание на тип текста, который вам надо написать. Сконцентрируйте свое внимание на той информации, которую необходимо включить. Напишите первый черновой вариант. Проверьте, вся ли требуемая информация вошла в ваш текст. Перед тем как переписать на чистовой вариант, проверьте грамматические и орфографические ошибки. 2. Длинные тексты прагматического характера: написание личного/неофициального письма (Personal/Informal letter) и официального письма (Formal Letter). Внимательно прочитайте задание. Обратите внимание на тип письма (официальное/неофициальное), которое вам предстоит написать. Сконцентрируйтесь на той информации, которую требуется включить по заданию. Изложите каждый пункт. Обратите внимание на форму письма. Кроме письма личного характера, все остальные типы писем требуют официального стиля и использования речевых клише (например, Dear Sir or Madam). Обратите внимание на образцы писем и типичные выражения, которые приводятся в тематических разделах и в приложении. Перед тем как переписать на чистовой вариант, еще раз прочитайте и исправьте возможные ошибки. 3. Сочинение-описание. Проанализируйте тему. Обратите внимание на тот факт, что в сочинениях такого типа требуется не только дать описание, но и аргументировать свой выбор. Определите, что конкретно вы хотите описать, подумайте, как аргументировать свой выбор. Когда вы составляете план своего сочинения, начните с первого абзаца. Обдумайте его содержание и убедитесь, что оно соответствует теме. Затем определите необходимое количество абзацев и информацию, которую вы хотите включить в каждый из них. При написании сочинения обратите внимание на предложения и выражения, которые соединяют абзацы и таким образом делают ваш текст логично выстроенным. Когда вы сделали все необходимые исправления в содержании и стиле текста, постарайтесь заменить простые фразы- 13
14 клише на более содержательные выражения. Проверьте текст, чтобы избежать грамматических и лексических ошибок. 4. Краткое изложение текста (summary). При выполнении задания этого типа вам необходимо кратко изложить содержание прочитанного текста. Для этого нужно внимательно прочитать текст и разбить его на смысловые части. В каждой смысловой части найдите одно-два предложения, передающих основную мысль. Упростите найденные предложения, устранив избыточную информацию. Перед тем как написать окончательный вариант, внимательно проверьте текст, чтобы избежать грамматических и лексических ошибок. Посчитайте количество слов и убедитесь, что оно соответствует заданию. 14
15 Вводный фонетический курс Известно, что язык возник и существует как средство общения людей, прежде всего в звуковой, устной форме. Письмо это всего лишь условное изображение того, что мы произносим. Каждый язык имеет свою систему звуков, свои законы ударения и интонацию. Все это называется фонетическим строем языка. Овладение языком следует начинать с изучения его фонетического строя, описанием которого занимается фонетика. Согласно современной классификации английский язык относится к семье германских языков, в которую кроме английского, входят немецкий, голландский, скандинавские (шведский, датский, исландский) языки. В английском языке 44 звука, а латинский алфавит, который используется в английском языке, имеет лишь 26 букв (из которых 20 согласных и 6 гласных букв). При этом каждая гласная в английском языке может передавать около 5 звуков в зависимости от положения в слове (слоге). В результате 6 гласных передают 22 звука. Одна и та же буква в разных положениях может читаться как несколько разных звуков и, наоборот, один и тот же звук передается различными буквами и буквосочетаниями. Поэтому для облегчения изучения иностранного языка существует система условных знаков транскрипция. Каждый звук имеет свой транскрипционный знак. Транскрипция записывается в скобках [ ]. Главное ударение в слове обозначается штрихом вверху и ставится перед ударным слогом, а не над ним, как в русском языке. Например: ['teibl] table стол. В слове может быть и второстепенное ударение, которое обозначается штрихом внизу. Например: [,roulz rois] Rolls-Royce. В отличие от русского языка, где слова имеют не более одного ударения, английское слово может иметь, помимо главного, еще и второстепенное ударение. Как правило, слог с второстепенным ударением бывает отделен от главного одним безударным слогом. Например: 15
16 [ ImI,teIt] imitate имитировать, [ simpli,fai] simplify упрощать. Запомнив транскрипцию, вы сможете прочитать любое слово в словаре. Отличие фонетического строя английского языка от фонетического строя русского языка. Фонетический строй английского языка во многом отличается от фонетического строя русского языка. 1. Следует обратить особое внимание на долготу и краткость гласных, так как в русском языке нет такого фонетического явления. В русском языке можно сколько угодно долго тянуть гласную в слове и смысл слова от этого не изменится. Например: ш и-и-и п у розы (шип у розы). Смысл слова «шип» не меняется. Иначе происходит в английском языке. Например: ship [ʃip] корабль или sheep [ʃi:p] овца. Долгота гласных в транскрипции обозначается двумя точками [i:]. Например: сидеть sit [sit], место seat [si:t]. 2. Английские гласные делятся на две группы: монофтонги и дифтонги. Монофтонги это звуки, которые имеют один элемент. В русском языке только монофтонги: [а], [о], [у], [и], [э]. Дифтонгов в русском языке нет. Примеры монофтонгов в английском языке: [I], [i:], [u], [u:], [e]. Примеры дифтонгов в английском языке: [ai], [ei], [oi], [au]. Например: коробка box [boks], где краткий [o] является монофтонгом; мальчик boy [boi], где [oi] является дифтонгом. 3. Обратите внимание на то, что в английском языке звонкие согласные не оглушаются в конце слова. Например: [bed] bed кровать, а не [bet] bet заключать пари. 4. Английские согласные произносятся твердо перед любым гласным. Например: [lend] lend давать взаймы, [pen] pen ручка. ЗВУКИ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА И УКАЗАНИЯ К ИХ ПРОИЗНОШЕНИЮ Гласные звуки. Монофтонги [i:] Близок протяжному «и», или «ий». [I] Близок краткому гласному «и» в слове игла. 16
17 [e] Близок звуку «е» в словах лес, мел. [æ] Звук краткий и напряженный, средний между «а» и «э». [a:] Напоминает долгий звука «а»: галка. [ɒ] Напоминает краткий звук «о» в слове тот. [ɔ:] Напоминает протяжно произнесенное «о» в слове гол. [ʊ] Близок к звуку «у» в слове тут. [u:] Близок к звуку «у», произнесенному протяжно: угол. [ʌ] Похож на русский ударный «а» в дам, более близок по произношению к русскому неударному звуку «а» в слове камыш. В английском языке это ударный гласный. [ɜ:] Долгий звук, который в чем-то похож на русский звук «ё». Но губы при этом не вытягиваются. Например, в слове: пёс. [ǝ] Короткий, неясный, неударный звук. В русском языке слышится в безударных слогах в словах: хата, пять комнат. Согласные звуки соответствуют русским: [p] «п» с придыханием, то есть с громким выдохом перед ударной гласной, например, парк. [b] «б» в слове берег. [m] «м» в слове море; при произнесении английского согласного [m] губы смыкаются плотнее, чем при произнесении соответствующего русского звука. [k] «к» с придыханием, то есть громким выдохом, особенно перед ударным гласным и на конце слова звучит более отчетливо, например, карта. [g] «г» в слове город, но менее напряженно. [f] «ф» в слове фабрика, но более напряженно, чем в русском языке. [v] «в» в слове вода. [s] «с» в слове сад, но более напряженно, чем в русском языке. [z] «з» в слове завуч. [t] «т» в слове ток, с придыханием, то есть с громким выдохом перед ударной гласной; кончик языка поднят и прижат к альвеолам. [d] «д» в слове дом; кончик языка поднят и прижат к альвеолам. 17
18 [n] «н» в слове ноги; кончик языка поднят и прижат к альвеолам. [l] приблизительно «л» в слове лес; всегда произносится несколько мягче, чем твердый русский «л», но тверже, чем мягкий «ль»; кончик языка поднят и прижат к альвеолам. [ʃ] «ш» в слове шесть. [ʒ] «ж» в слове жесть. [r] «р» без вибрации, как в слове жребий; кончик языка находится за альвеолами, образуя щель. Язык напряжен, а его кончик неподвижен. [h] легкий выдох, напоминающий звук «х». [j] напоминает слабый русский «й» перед гласными: если. Следующие согласные звуки не имеют даже приблизительных соответствий в русском языке: [w] При произнесении этого звонкого звука губы округлены и значительно выдвинуты вперед. Струя выдыхаемого воздуха с силой проходит через образованную между губами щель. Губы энергично раздвигаются. [ŋ] Для произнесения этого звука необходимо приоткрыть рот. Спинка языка поднимается к мягкому небу и закрывает проход в ротовую полость. Воздух проходит через нос. [θ] В русском языке подобного звука нет. Звук глухой. При его произнесении кончик языка находится между зубами. Зубы должны быть обнажены, особенно нижние, так чтобы нижняя губа не касалась верхних зубов и не приближалась к ним (иначе получится «ф»). Звук напоминает шепелявый русский «с». [ð] В русском языке подобного звука нет. Звук звонкий. При его произнесении кончик языка находится между зубами. Зубы должны быть обнажены, особенно нижние, так чтобы нижняя губа не касалась верхних зубов и не приближалась к ним (иначе получится «в»). Звук напоминает шепелявый русский «з». 18
19 Правила чтения Ударные гласные Открытый слог Закрытый слог Гласн. + r и гласн. + r + + согл. Гласн. + r + + гласн. [ei] case [æ] tank [a:] car park [eə] vary Aa Ee Ii Oo Uu Yy [i:] she [e] bet [3:] her term [iə] mere [ai] line [i] bit [3:] sir third [aiə] hire [əʊ] zone [ɒ] lot [ɔ:] or born [ɔ:] story [ju:] nude [ʌ] cut [3:] fur burn [jʊə] pure [ai] my [i] myth [3:] Cyrd [aiə] tyre 1. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая правила чтения ударных гласных. pot this jet man and tune be ship game cat here less home slim set car hammer bit baby bird butter sport fire Lord let nose form plan me life turn hot cigarette rare fun time lesson believe 2. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. The black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat. 2. A big black bug bit a big black bear. A big black bear bit a big black bug. 3. The batter with the butter is the batter that is better! Сочетания гласных Set 1 [i:] ee see; ea sea; ie believe, ei receive 19
20 [a:] a + ss grass; a + st last; a + sk task; a + sp grasp; a + lm calm; ea + r heart [ɔ:] au autor, aw saw; oo + r door; aught taught; ought thought; a + l wall; a + lk talk; wa + r warm. [ɒ] wa want 3. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая сочетание гласных. glass bee ball bought roll autumn walk sea mask paw fault ward award law tea fast doll corn 4. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. Love's a feeling you feel when you feel you're going to feel the feeling you've never felt before. 2. I saw a saw in Arkansas that would outsaw any saw I ever saw, and if you got a saw that will outsaw the saw I saw in Arkansas let me see your saw. 3. Each Easter Eddie eats eighty Easter eggs. Set 2 [u:] oo too; ou group [ju:] ew new [ʊ] oo book [3:] ea + r learn; wo + r work 5. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая сочетание гласных. look few tooth Earth view tool soup food earn Earl Lewis hook root groom cook 20
21 6. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. How many cookies could a good cook cook, if a good cook could cook cookies? A good cook could cook as much cookies as a good cook who could cook cookies. 2. Two to two to Toulouse? 3. You know New York. You need New York. You know you need unique New York. Set 3 [ʌ] o son; ou country; oo flood [ei] ai rain; ay day; ey they; eigh eight [ai] i gh sigh; i + ld child; i + nd blind; igh night [ɒi] oi oil; oy toy [aʊ] ou out; ow down 7. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая сочетание гласных. fair pay boy right weight pain find brown lay vain sign bay light coin blood grow 8. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. A noise annoys an oyster, but a noisy noise annoys an oyster more! 2. Wow, race winners really want red wine right away! Set 4 [əʊ] oa coat; ow know; o + ll toll; o + ld cold [iə] ea + r near; ee + r engineer [eə] ai + r chair; e + re there; ea + r bear [ʊə] oo + r poor; our tour 21
22 9. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая сочетание гласных. 22 boat fear blow sold air coal fair tear appear where told dear 10. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. What noise annoys an oyster most? A noisy noise annoys an oyster most. 2. Each Easter Eddie eats eighty Easter eggs. 3. Clowns grow glowing crowns. Сочетание согласных Set 1 ck [k] luck sh [ʃ] ship ch [tʃ] chip tch [tʃ] catch th [θ] thick th [ð] this ph [f] phone qu [kw] quite kn [n] knife ng [ŋ] thing nk [ŋk] sink 11. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая сочетание согласных. neck shop than phrase kitchen church back fresh think mother cheap black ship change should photo much dish weather pack
23 12. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. She sells seashells on the seashore, the shells that she sells are seashells, I m sure. 2. If two witches would watch two watches, which witch would watch which watch? 3. I thought a thought. But the thought I thought wasn't the thought I thought I thought. If the thought I thought I thought had been the thought I thought, I wouldn't have thought so much. 4. I wish you were a fish in my dish. Set 2 wh + o [h] who wh + остальные гласные [w] what wr в начале слова перед гласными [r] writer 13. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая сочетание согласных. write wrist why wretch wry writ wrap wrong wren wreak wraith wrangle when wreck wreath wrack 14. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. Ripe white wheat reapers reap ripe white wheat right. 2. Why do you cry, Willy? Why do you cry? Why, Willy? Why, Willy? Why, Willy? Why? 3. Which wristwatch is a Swiss wristwatch? Согласные звуки, имеющие два варианта чтения c [s] перед e, i, y nice, city, icy [k] в остальных случаях come, сatch 23
24 g [ʤ] перед e, i, y large, engine, gym; (исключения get, begin, give) [g] в остальных случаях good, go. 15. Напишите транскрипцию слов и отработайте их произношение, учитывая сочетание согласных. cat mice face lace cap cell cent cite giraffe clap gym clean goal nice cyme cape game camp girl cane good goose clamp slice candle 16. Прочитайте пословицы несколько раз, обращая внимание на изучаемые звуки. 1. How many cookies could a good cook cook. If a good cook could cook cookies? A good cook could cook as much cookies, as a good cook who could cook cookies. 2. Can you can a can as a canner can can a can? 3. Clean clams crammed in clean cans. 17. Прочитайте стих, обращая внимание на правила чтения. When the English tongue we speak Why is BREAK not rhymed with WEAK? Will you tell me why it s true That we say SEW, but also FEW? When a poet writes a verse Why is HORSE not rhymed with WORSE? BEARD is not the same as HEARD LORD is different from WORD? COW is cow, but LOW is low SHOE is never rhymed with TOE. Think of NOSE and DOSE and LOSE Think of GOOSE and then of CHOOSE. Think of COMB and TOMB and BOMB Doll and ROLL, or HOME and SOME. 24
25 We have BLOOD and FOOD and GOOD. MOULD is not pronounced like COULD. Think of PAY, SAY, PAID and SAID. I will READ and I have READ Why say DONE, but GONE and LONE Is there any reason known? To sum it up, it seems to me That sounds and letters disagree. 25
26 UNIT 1. WORK AND STUDY Topic 1. Self-presentation 26 Reading 1. Study the sounds and types of reading (See Introduction to Phonetics) 2. Study the Word List. study at university/institute учиться в университете/институте first-year student студент-первокурсник have classes/lessons in English посещать занятия по английскому foreign language иностранный язык subject учебный предмет speak English говорить по-английски study English изучать английский
27 live in a house/a flat проживать в доме/квартире work as a salesman работать продавцом have a penfriend abroad иметь друга по переписке за рубежом occupation род занятий age возраст be married быть замужем/женатым 3. Answer the questions using the words above. 1. What subjects do you study? 2. Do you speak English well? 3. Have you got a penfriend abroad? 4. Where is he/she from? 5. Do you send s in English to him/her? 4. Read Danka s to Jacek and do the tasks after it. An from England 1 Dear Jacek, How are you? I m fine. Here s an in English. It s good practice for you and me! I have classes in English at The Embassy Language School. I m in a class with seven students. They re all from different countries: Japan, Brazil, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. Our teacher s name is Simon. He s very funny and a very good teacher. I live with an English family in a small, old house near the centre of town. Robert and Valerie have a daughter and a son. Their daughter, Becky, is 19. She s a student at Brighton University. Their son, James, is a software designer for a computer company. He s 25. They re all very friendly, but it isn t easy to understand them. They speak very fast! Brighton isn t very big, but it s very exciting! The restaurants and nightclubs are expensive, but the student bars and cafes are 1 Soars J., Soars L. New Headway Elementary: Student s Book. 3-d ed. Oxford : University Press, P
28 cheap. It s hot now, and it s lovely to be near the sea. I m very happy here. me soon! Love, Danka 5. Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. Danka is from Poland. 2. She is on holiday. No, she isn t. She is at school. 3. She is in London. 4. The students in her class are all from Germany. 5. It is a very big class. 6. Becky and James are both students. 7. The student bars are cheap. 8. Danka is happy in Brighton. 6. Match the questions to the answers. Ask and answer them in pairs. 1. Where s Danka from? 2. What countries are the students from? 3. What s her teacher s name? 4. Who are James and Becky? 5. How old are James and Becky? 6. Is Brighton very big? 7. What is James? a) No, it isn t. b) They are brother and sister. They live with Danka. c) Poland. d) James is 25 and Becky is 19. e) Japan, Brazil, Switzerland, Germany, and Italy. f) He is a software designer. g) Simon. 28 Grammar Pronouns (See Grammar Reference) 7. Complete the sentences with the right form of the pronouns. 1. Mary works as a designer. She is a good specialist (she, her, hers). 2. It s difficult to understand. They speak very fast (they, them, their). 3. I study at University. am a first-year student (I, he, it).
29 4. It s good practice for and me (our, you, his). 5. My friend and I study Law. are students (they, you, we). 6. My family live in Brighton. This is photo (our, her, us). To be (See Grammar Reference) 8. Complete the sentences with am, is, are. 1. My name _is_ Emma. 2. Where you from? I from Italy. 3. What your name? My name s Daniela. 4. Lisa and Mike from Boston. 5. This my teacher. His name Richard. 6. Where he from? 7. This my sister. Her name Miho. 8. What your father? My father a doctor. 9. Who you? I James. 10. What their names? They Victoria and Margaret. To have, have got (See Grammar Reference) 9. Use the words from the box to make expressions with have/has + noun. Make questions and negatives with them. breakfast lunch a snack dinner a sleep a shower a bath a shave a wash a rest a break a headache e.g. Do you have breakfast in the mornings? I don t have breakfast in the mornings. Does she usually have breakfast? She doesn t usually have breakfast. 10. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions with have. Then tell the class about your partner, using he/she and has. 1. Do you have lunch at the university? Yes, I do. Usually I go to the canteen. No, I don t. I have lunch at home. 29
30 30 2. Do you have a rest in the evenings? 3. Do you have a shower in the morning or in the evening? 4. Do you often have a headache? 5. Do you have a large family? 6. Do you have a sister or a brother? 7. How many children do you have? 8. Do you have any questions to me? 11. Answer the questions with have/has got. 1. Have they got a car? Yes, they have / No, they haven t. 2. Has she got a flat? 3. Has your friend got a dog / a cat? 4. Have you got a brother? 5. Have we got an umbrella with us today? 6. Has he got a brother or a sister? 12. Complete the questions. Ask and answer your partner what he/she has got. 1. Have you got a brother or a sister? I ve got a brother. 2.? I have a bath every Sunday. 3.? Yes, he has. My friend s got a new car. 4.? No, I don t have breakfast in the mornings. 5. or? I ve got a cat. 6.? I usually have dinner at home. 7.? No, we don t have lessons at weekends. 8.? No, I ve got a sister. 9.? Yes, I ve got. I ve got a lot of friends. 13. Tick the correct sentence. 1. I m a doctor. I m doctor. 2. I have twenty-nine years old. I m twenty-nine years old. 3. I no married. I m not married.
31 4. My sister s name is Michelle. My sisters name is Michelle. 5. She married. She s married. 6. I have two brother. I have two brothers. 7. Do you have any children? Do you have got any children? 8. Does she have a son? Do she have a son? Listening 14a. Read and listen to the sentences with have and have got. ( 1) A: Do you have a car? Yes, I do. No, I don t. B: Have you got a car? Yes, I have No, I haven t C: I don t have a computer. I haven t got a computer. 14b. Work in pairs. Ask and answer about the things in the box, using have or have got. a car a lot of friends a camera a bicycle a credit car a laptop a pet a computer a mobile phone a motobike brothers and sisters your parents 15a. Work with a partner. Write questions to find the information about the people in your chart. Student A: Look at chart 1. Student B: Look at chart 2 on the opposite page. 31
32 Chart 1 Name and age Mike, 26 Lucy, 38 Nicole, 15 Jeff, 54, and Wendy, 53 Town and country Family Occupation Free time / holiday Present activity Texas, the United States two brothers and a dog student at high school listens to music Florida or Mexico getting ready to go out Melbourne, Australia one daughter and three grandchildren He office. She hairdresser tennis, swimming Bali every summer Having a barbecue in the back yard Town and country Family Occupation Free time / holiday Present activity Where does he from? married? Has he got? Does she have? How many? What do? What does she in her free time? Where go on holiday? What doing at the moment? Chart 2 32 Name and age Mike, 26 Lucy, 38 Nicole, 15 Jeff, 54, and Wendy, 53 Town and Vancouver, Perth, Scotland country Canada Family a sister a son and a daughter Occupation Works for a computer company part-time teacher Free time / holiday skiing, ice hockey Europe reading, going to the cinema
33 Окончание табл. Name and age Mike, 26 Lucy, 38 Nicole, 15 Jeff, 54, and Wendy, 53 Present activity playing ice hockey Spain or Greece washing the dishes Town and country Family Occupation Free time / holiday Present activity Where does he from? married? Has he got? Does she have? How many? What do? What does she in her free time? Where go on holiday? What doing at the moment? 15b. Listen and compare. Ask and answer questions with your partner to complete your chart. ( 2) Speaking 16. Talk with your partner about the things and the people from the box, using have/have got. a computer a camera a car a credit card a mobile phone a pet brothers and sisters your parents / a dacha your friend / a child e.g. Do you have a car? Yes, I do. / No, I don t. Have you got a car? Yes? I have. / No, I haven t. 17. Work with a partner. Write questions to find the information about two other people in your chart. Ask and answer questions with your partner to complete your chart. Student A: Look at chart 1. Student B: Look at chart 2 on the opposite page. 33
34 Chart 1 Name and age Town and Country Family Occupation Mike, 26 Lucy, 38 Nicole, 15 Jeff, 54 and Wendy, 53 Texas, the United States Melbourne, Australia two brothers and a dog! one daughter and three grandchildren student at high school He office. She hairdresser. Town /country Where he/she from? Family he/she married? Has he/she got? Does he/she have? How many? Occupation What does he/she do? Chart 2 Name and age Town and Country Family Occupation Mike, 26 Lucy, 38 Nicole, 15 Jeff, 54 and Wendy, 53 Vancouver, Canada Perth, Scotland a sister A son and a daughter works for a computer company part-time teacher Town /country Family Occupation Where he/she from? he/she married? Has he/she got? Does he/she have? How many? What does he/she do? 18a. Interview two students and complete the table. 34
35 Student 1 Student 2 Name Country/town Job Address Phone number Age Married 18b. Tell the class about one of the students. Writing 19a. Read Becky s letter to her penfriend Tiago and answer the questions 1. Where is she from? Where is he from? What does Becky write about? 20 Holland Street Brighton BN 2WB 5 April Dear Tiago, Thank you for your address in Brazil! My name s Becky and I m nineteen years old. I m a language student at Brighton University. I live in a house near the centre of Brighton with my mother and father, my brother James, and my Polish friend Danka. I speak French, Spanish and a little German, but I don t speak Portuguese. Sorry! My favourite subject at university is Spanish, but I don t like German. I like listening to music and swimming. At weekends I go out with my friends. Sometimes we go to the cinema and sometimes we go to a café or a nightclub. 1 Soars J., Soars L. Op. cit. P
36 What about you? What do you do in Brazil? Please write to me. Best wishes, Becky 19b. Read the letter again and answer these questions. How does the letter begin and end? What is the date? What is Becky s address? Do you write addresses in the same way? 19c. Write a similar letter to a penfriend about yourself. Topic 2. Work and Jobs 36 Reading 1. Study the Word List. working hours рабочее время nine-to-five job восьмичасовой рабочий день do flexitime работать по скользящему графику do shiftwork работать посменно work/do overtime работать сверхурочно work for a large company работать в большой компании
37 colleague коллега, сослуживец send s отправлять электронные письма daily routine ежедневные рутинные обязанности in charge of/responsible for руководить, нести ответственность run a business управлять предприятием deal with /handle иметь дело с pay salary платить заработную плату working conditions условия работы minimum wage минимальная заработная плата 2. Match words to form collocations and make up sentences with these collocations. 1) nine-toworking 2) flexiincome 3) minimum a) time b) tax c) wage d) five e) hours 3. Read the text and do the tasks after it. For many people, working hours are am to pm, so people often talk about a nine-to-five job (= regular working hours). Some people do flexitime (= they can start work earlier or finish later); and some do shiftwork (= work at different times). Some people work/do overtime. (= work extra hours for more money). Most workers are paid (= receive money) every month. This is called a salary. We can also use the verbs earn/make, to say how much you get. Some people are paid for the hours they work. The lowest amount for one hour's work is called the minimum wage. This amount is decided by the government. With most jobs you get 4 6 weeks' paid holiday; you also get sick pay. (= pay when you are ill) The total amount of money you receive in a year is called your income. This could be your salary from one job, or the salary from two different jobs. You have to pay part of your income to the government; this is called income tax. 37
38 4. Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. Some people work at different times. 2. People cannot start work earlier or finish later. 3. Most workers get salary every month. 4. The highest amount for one hour's work is called the minimum wage. 5. You pay your income tax to the government. 5. Match the words with their translation. 1) earn/make money, 2) do paper work, 3) run a company, 4) get 4 weeks' paid holiday, 5) pay income tax, 6) get sick pay, a) получать больничный лист, b) выполнять бумажную работу, c) платить подоходный налог, d) управлять компанией, e) зарабатывать деньги, f) получать четырехнедельный оплачиваемый отпуск. 6. Answer the questions about working conditions in Russia. 1. What are normal working hours for most office jobs? 2. How much income tax do most people pay of what they earn? 3. Do workers normally get paid holidays? If so, how many days do they usually get? 4. Is there a minimum wage decided by the government? If so, how much is it? 5. What jobs often involve shiftwork? (Give at least two examples.) 7. Complete the text about office work with the words from the box. Type, paperwork, works for, attends, makes, colleagues, meetings Brian works for a company which produces furniture. He works in an office, opposite the factory where the furniture is made. 38
39 Brian and his work at a computer most of the time, where they letters and reports, and send lots of s. He sends invoices to customers, and does quite a lot of. Occasionally he shows people round the factory. He appointments for his boss and put them in the diary. He also arranges for managers from different departments and types the agenda. Sometimes he meetings and takes the minutes. 8. Match the words with their definitions. Then use these collocations in sentences of your own. e.g. The secretary makes appointments for her boss. 1) agenda, 2) attend meetings, 3) take the minutes, 4) make appointments, 5) arranges meetings, a) write down notes during the meeting, b) a list of things to discuss at a meeting, c) organize meetings, d) go to meetings, e) set up appointments. 9. Find the best noun in the box to complete each of the sentences. work letter minutes visitors appointment meeting 1. I have loads of work to do today. 2. I am making an to see their managing director next week. 3. Could we arrange the for next Thursday? 4. I want to send her an via the Internet. 5. Could you type a for me to send to the bank? 6. I'm busy now. I am showing some round the factory. 7. One of my duties is to take. 10. Add a suffix from the box to the words to make jobs. -er/r -ian -ist -man/-woman 39
40 Music musician, art, science, journal, politics, manage, electric, photograph, police, post, reception, employ /, direct, design, drive, post, fire, boat, bar. 11. Which workers normally do these things? Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions about the work, using the words from the box. 40 Wear uniforms, meet guests in reception, attend meetings, take the minutes, set salaries, work at a computer, send s, make appointments, type letters e.g. Who types letters? Office workers type letters. 12a. Study the information in the box and do the task after it. When people ask you to explain your job, they want to know your responsibilities (= your duties/what you have to do), or something about your daily routine (= what you do every day). They can ask like this: What does that involve? (= What do you do in your job?). We often use responsible for/in charge of for part of something, e.g. a department or some of the workers; and run for control of all of something, e.g. a company, a shop, a course, etc. 12b. Replace the words in bold with the words from the box. Involves, deal with, attend, responsible for, run, advise, customers 1. My job includes travelling. My job involves travelling. 2. I handle a lot of task a day. 3. I am in control of / manage the coffee bar in the museum. 4. I go to a lot of meetings. 5. I see/meet clients. 6. I consult clients. 7. I'm in charge of security in the company.
41 13. Work in pairs. Read the statements and then ask and answer questions about work. If you don t work, talk about a person who works. e.g. Do you work at a computer a lot of time? Yes, I do. For example: I work at a computer a lot of the time. I do a lot of paperwork. I use a lot. I show people round my workplace. I arrange meetings. I attend quite a lot of meetings. Grammar Pronouns (See Grammar Reference) 14. Complete this description of a job by putting in the correct subject or object pronouns. (1) I work in a tourist information office. Three other people work with (2). (3) are called Mandy, Rosemarie and Robert. Mandy is a very funny girl and (4) always makes jokes. Rosemarie is an older woman and I don't know (5) very well. Robert is a friendly man and everyone likes (6) because (7) is very helpful. (8) sit in seats at the counter and people come in and ask (9) questions. (10) try to help (11) but sometimes (12) ask silly questions and (13) don't know the answers. But (14) is a good job and I enjoy (15). The Constructions: There is/are (See Grammar Reference) 15a. Use words from the box and the constructions there is/are to make positive and negative sentences about the classroom. Computers, map, coffee machine, keyboard, calendar, photos, windows, textbooks 41
42 1. There s a calendar on the wall. 2. There s a 3. There isn t a 4. There are some 5. There aren t any 15b. Work in pairs. Ask and answer questions about the facilities above. e.g. Is there a calendar on the wall? Yes, there is. Present Simple (See Grammar Reference) 16. Complete the sentences with the present simple forms of the verbs in brackets. 1 I usually (1) arrive (arrive) at the office very early. My assistant Jessica (2) (bring) me the mail and (3) (tell) me what is in my diary for the day. She (4) (do) a lot of very important work for me. Jessica (5) (organize) my day and (6) (deal) with a lot of people for me. Then I (7) (have) a meeting with my team of managers we (8) (discuss) plans and problems. Sometimes they (9) (not agree) with me but the meetings usually (10) (not last) for very long. I (11) (not eat) much at lunch time the others (12) (go) to the canteen but I (13) (stay) in my office and someone (14) (get) me a sandwich. My day usually (15) (finish) at about 6 p.m. I (16) (not go) to the office every day. I (17) (work) at home some days and I sometimes (18) (travel) to meetings or conferences. 17. Read and complete the text with the correct form of the verbs in the box 2. 1 Harrison M. Oxford Living Grammar: Pre-Intermediate : Learn and Practice Grammar in Context: with answers. Oxford : Univ. press, P Soars J., Soars L. Op. cit. P
43 like love x2 get up go running go x2 train relax visit cook go out play want live watch I love my job as a family lawyer, because I (1) like helping people. But I (2) playing rugby, too, so my life is very busy! Every lunchtime I (3) in the park near my office. On Monday and Thursday evenings I (4) to the swimming pool with my boyfriend Alex. On Tuesday and Friday mornings I (5) at 5.30 and (6) to the gym before work. And on Wednesday evenings I (7) with my team at the club. On Friday evenings I just (8) because I'm usually very tired! I sometimes (9) my sister. She (10) in the centre of Cardiff, too. Or I (11) a nice dinner at home with Alex. We (12) cooking. After dinner we often (13) a DVD. We never (14) on Saturday evenings, because I always (15) in a match on Sundays. I (16) our team to win the next World Cup. Present Simple and Present Continuous (See Grammar Reference) 18. Choose the correct verb forms to complete the text 1. We re all accountants and (1) work (work / are working) for a telecommunications company in the finance department. We (2) (sit / are sitting) at our PСs in the office every day and (3) (check / are checking) the invoices and payments. But this week is different: we (4) (attend / are attending) a training course. The company (5) (currently changes / is currently changing) to a new accounting system, and this week, we (6) (learn / are learning) all about it. So at the moment, we (7) (stay / are staying) at a big hotel in the mountains. It s wonderful! When we re at home, we usually (8) (spend / are spending) the evening cooking and cleaning for our families. But here, there s an excellent restaurant and we can relax and have a laugh together. 1 Johnson C. Intelligent Business : Coursebook. Edinburgh : Longman, P
44 19. Complete the text with the correct form of the verb 1. My working day (1) starts (start) with a long journey to the office usually over an hour on a crowded train. The first event of a typical day is the regular morning meeting. Our managers (2) (give) updates on the department s progress. After that, it s a long, hard day of work. Now you can see me at work I (3) (give) a presentation to my colleagues. I often (4) (stay) in the office until 9 or 10 pm. But this is the old way. Now, things (5) (begin) to change. Young people (6) (refuse) to work long hours. They (7) (demand) more leisure time and freedom. Listening 20a. Work with a partner. Answer the questions. ( 3) 1. What is a 24/7 society? 2. Which jobs need people to work at night? 20b. Listen to a radio programme about four night workers: Jerry, Jackie, Doreen, and Dan. Complete the chart. Jerry Jackie Doreen Dan Place of work Hours Why working nights? Problems 20c. Listen again and check your answers. Then discuss the questions below. Who has the best job? Who has the worst job? Do you know anybody who works at night? What do they do? What do they think about it? Could you work at night? Why? Why not? 44
45 Speaking 21a. Work with a partner. Choose one of the jobs from the box, but don t tell your partner. With your partner ask and answer Yes / No questions to find out what the job is. Shop assistant, receptionist, taxi-driver, lawyer, dancer, soldier, detective, vet, mechanic, dentist, housewife, farmer, plumber, firefighter, top-manager, judge, banker, bank clerk, politician, policeman, manager, accountant, secretary, financial analyst, director e.g. Are you a mechanic? No. Are you a policeman? Yes. 21b. Discuss in pairs: What jobs are for women? What jobs are for men? Is there any difference? Give your reasons and make a list. Discuss other jobs, too. e.g. I think a politician is a profession for men. 22. Answer the questions and tell your partner about your work or your friend s work. What s your job? What do you do in your job? What do you like about your job? Do you do a 9 5 job? Do you work long hours? How often do you work overtime? Do you work flexitime? What time do you have lunch? What do you usually wear to work? How often do you expect to get a pay rise in your job? Do you get paid holidays? 23. Prepare a short speech of sentences about your working day if you work or about the working day of another person whom you know well. 45
46 Writing 24. Finish the following sentences. 1. My friend works for 2. He is 3. My friend works long hours because he does a 4. He usually has lunch 5. My friend usually wears 6. Sometimes he gets 7. My fried likes 25. Write a composition «My Working Day». Topic 3. Higher Education Reading 1. Study the Word List. tuition fee плата за обучение do a degree учиться на бакалавра have a degree иметь степень (бакалавра) 46
47 degree of BA степень бакалавра гуманитарных наук degree of BSc / BS бакалавр естественных наук scholarship стипендия graduate from заканчивать, выпускаться из высшего учебного заведения undergraduate студент университета graduate выпускник университета MA (Master of Arts) магистр гуманитарных наук MSc / MS (Master of Science) магистр естественных наук PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) доктор философии, докторская степень, общая для всех областей знаний, которая предполагает 3 года обучения на базе магистерской степени и защиту диссертации do research into/on выполнять научно-исследовательскую работу department / faculty факультет, кафедра lecturer старший преподаватель, лектор (третий по старшинству преподаватель университета после профессора (professor) и ридера (reader) 2. Read the subjects that you can do/study at university. The underlining shows the syllable you must stress in each word. medicine law philosophy engineering psychology sociology architecture politics business studies agriculture history of art economics 3. Match the words to make sentences. I You My friend My friend and I My groupmates Students am is are doing Management studying subjects passing an exam doing a research graduating doing a degree in at from on of university institute English Economics Law BA 47
48 4. Answer the questions using the words from the Word List. 1. What subjects are you studying at the institute? 2. Do you pay a tuition fee every year? 3. Are you studying your first degree? 4. What degree are you doing? 5. Do you plan to do a master s degree? 6. Are you doing any research now? 7. Do you always attend lectures and seminars? 8. Do you like your study? 9. Do you have friends among your groupmates? 10. How do you get to the institute? Do you commute (ездить на учебу из пригорода)? 5. Read the text paying attention to the words in bold and do the task after it. Education: University 1 < > If you want to go to (= enter fml) university, you must first pass examinations that most students take at the age of 18 (called 'A' levels). Students usually take three or four A levels (examinations in three or four subjects), and they must do well to get a place at university. If you get a place, most students have to pay part of their tuition fees (= money for teaching). Some students also get a government grant (= money to pay for living expenses e.g. food and somewhere to live), but most students need a loan (= money you borrow from a bank) to cover the cost of (= pay for) university life. Students at university are called undergraduates while they are studying for their first degree. Most university courses last (= continue for) three years, some courses last four years, one or two courses, e.g. medicine, are five years. During this period students can say they are doing a degree, and when they finish and pass their exams, they can say they have a degree. This can be a BA (= bachelor of arts) or a BSc (= bachelor of science) 1 Redman S. English Vocabulary in Use: Pre-Intermediate and Intermediate. Self-study and classroom use. 2-d ed. Cambridge : Univ. press, P
49 When you complete your first degree, you are a graduate. Some students then go on (= continue) to do a second course or degree, called a postgraduate course/degree (or postgrad course). These students are then postgraduates and they often study for: an MA (Master of Arts), e.g. I'm doing a Masters in English; an MSc (Master of Science), e.g. She did a Masters in biology; a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) [minimum three years], e.g. He's got a PhD in computer science. When people study one subject in great detail (often to find new information), we say they are doing research School has teachers and lessons; at university you have lecturers and lectures. The head of department (also called a 'faculty', but less common in spoken English) at a university is usually called a professor. (An ordinary teacher or lecturer is not a professor.) 6. Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. If you enter the university, you must pass examinations. 2. Students usually take more than four A levels. 3. All students have to pay their tuition fees. 4. Some students get from the government some money to pay for living expenses. 5. Most university courses continue for three years. 6. During the study students can say they are having a degree. 7. When you complete your first degree, you are a graduate. 8. Postgraduates study for a BA. 7. Match the definition with the right word. 1) the money some students receive if they get a place at university 2) money for teaching 3) students at university who are studying for their first degree 4) teachers at university 5) students when they have completed their first degree 6) students studying for a second, higher degree a) scholarship/ government grant b) BA / BSc c) MA / MSc d) tuition fee e) undergraduates f) lecturers 49
50 8. Replace the underlined verbs with less formal verbs that have the same meaning in the context. 1. Is it very difficult to obtain a place at university? get 2. First you pass exams and then you enter university. 3. He's studying physics, I think. 4. She wants to receive a grant for her course. 5. The course continues for three years. 9. Fill the gaps with a suitable word. 1. My brother is 20. He's still studying at university in York. 2. She's got a degree BS. 3. He's research Economics. 4. She's already got a BA. She's doing a degree now. 5. Who is the professor in your? Grammar Articles (See Grammar Reference) 10. Complete this blog by putting a, an or the into the gaps. I live in (1) _a_ big city in (2) centre of Britain. (3) city is called Coventry ad I live in (4) area that is quite close to (5) city centre. I live in (6) old house in (7) quiet street. I m (8) student at (9) local university, which is called Warwick University. (10) university is (11) modern one and it s (12) good university. It has (13) arts centre, which has (14) good programme of films and concerts. I m doing (15) three-year course there. My father works in (16) office. He is (17) Sales Director at (18) company that makes sports equipment. My mother is (19) nurse and she works at the new hospital that has just been built outside (20) city. I also have (21) brother he is (22) doctor and he works at (23) same hospital. 50
51 Present Simple and Present Continuous (See Grammar Reference) 11. Open the brackets and complete the questions and answers in a survey with the words in the present simple 1. I=Interviewer W=Woman I: (1) Do you live in the local area? (you/live) W: Yes, (2) I live close to here. (I/live) I: (3) this library very often? (you/visit) W: No, (4) here very often. (I/not come) I: What (5) in the library? (you/do) W: (6) the newspapers (I/read) and (7) books. (I/borrow) I: What kind of books (8)? (you/borrow) W: Fiction. (9) a good fiction section. (The library/have) I: (10) the library? (other members of your family/use) W: Yes, (11) some of her college work here. (my daughter/do) 12. Tara and Leon are talking on the phone. Complete their conversation with the words in the present continuous 2. Tara: Are you busy at the moment? Leon: Yes, (1) I m trying (I/try) to finish some work. (2) (I/do) an assignment and (3) (I/find) it very difficult. What (4) (you/do)? Tara: (5) (I/get) ready for the party tonight. (6) (I/live) in about twenty minutes. (7) (The taxi/come) for me at 7.30 p.m. Leon: Well, (8) (I/not go), unfortunately. I ve got to much work to do. (9) (Who/go) to this party? Tara: Everyone. (10) (We/celebrate) the end of the exams. (11) (A band/play) and about 120 (12) (people/ come). 1 Harrison M. Oxford Living Grammar: Pre-Intermediate : Learn and Practice Grammar in Context: with answers. Oxford : Univ. press, P Ibid. P
52 Leon: Well, (13) (I/stay) here and (14) (I/work) all evening. And then (15) (I/go) to bed. 13. Complete the sentences with the present simple or present continuous form of the verb in bold. 1. Work a) Does Theo James work in the sales department? Yes, he does. b) he there today? No. He s on holiday. 2. Do a) What you at the moment? I m designing a new car. b) What you? I m a design manager. 3) finish a) Why they early this afternoon? The factory is closing for repairs. b) they usually work at 4 o clock? No, they usually finish at 6 o clock. 4. develop a) the company new software programs? Yes, it does. b) What it currently? A new engineering program. 14. Complete this letter in an international magazine for teenagers, using the present simple or present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. Use short forms 1. I (1) m looking (look) for someone to write to in another country. I (2) (speak) quite good English but I (3) want to get better at it. And I (4) (think) it s good to have friends in different parts of the world. I (5) (go) to a local college and this term we (6) (study) for our exams. I (7) (work) very hard at college now because I (8) (need) to get good results. In my spare time, I 52 1 Harrison M. Op. cit. P. 9
53 (9) (like) classical music but I (10) (not like) much modern music. I (11) (not play) video games and I (12) (read) a lot of books. At the moment I (13) (try) to read fiction in English. My family? My father (14) (work) for international company and he (15) (travel) a lot. Right now he (16) (travel) in South-East Asia. He always (17) (buy) me something interesting from this trips and at the moment I (18) (use) a computer that he bought me. I hope that I (19) (not make) too many mistakes! Listening 15a. Read the text and listen to Maurizio. Then complete the text, using the words from the box. ( 4) m studying m enjoying graduate come live My name s is Maurizio Celi. I (1) come from Bologna, a city in the north of Italy. I m a student at the University of Bologna. I (2) modern languages English and Russian. I also know a little Spanish, so I can speak four languages. I (3) the course a lot, but it s really hard work. The course started three years ago. I (4) at home with my parents and my sister. My brother went to work in the United States last year. After I (5), I m going to work as a translator. I hope so anyway. 15b. Complete the questions about Maurizio and ask them to your partner. 1. Where does he come from? 2. Where he live? 3. Who does live with? 4. What university does he at? 53
54 5. What studying? 6. enjoying the course? 7. How many languages does he? 8. Where his brother work? Speaking 16a. Ask and answer these questions in pairs. 1. Where do you study? 2. Do you need to pass examinations before you enter university? 3. Do some students get a grant to study at university? 4. Do you pay a tuition fee for your study? 5. Do most degree courses last three years in Russia? 6. What is your equivalent of the British BA or BS in Russia? 7. What subjects are you studying? 8. How often do you attend lessons? What are they about? Are they useful? 9. Why do you need English? 16b. Prepare a speech of sentences about your studies. Writing 17. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Я учусь на бакалавра в институте. 2. Я студент первого курса. 3. Я плачу за свое обучение. 4. Я изучаю много интересных предметов. 5. Я посещаю все лекции и семинары. 6. У меня много друзей среди одногруппников. 7. Нам нравится изучать английский язык. 18. Write a letter to your penfriend about your studies at the institute (not more than 100 words). 54
55 Texts for Reading and Discussion Text A 1. Use the words from the box to discuss the questions. Nurse, builder, teacher, plumber, soldier, computer programmer, secretary, chef, gardener, painter, firefighter, detective, nanny 1. Which of these jobs are traditionally done by men? 2. Which of these jobs are traditionally done by women? 3. Which are equally well done by both sexes? If not, why not? 2. Answer the questions before reading the text. 1. In Britain the Equal Opportunities Commission (EOC) fights sexism, racism, and prejudice in the workplace. Do you know what this means? 2. Can you imagine ringing for a plumber and a woman arriving at the door? Or paying a man to look after your children? Does this seem unusual? 3. Read the first part of the newspaper article in the box and answer the questions. 1. What was the EOC report called? What does this mean? 2. What does the report say schools and employers are still doing? 3. What school subjects do you think are 'traditional for their gender'? Give examples. 4. What examples does the EOC give of jobs which are 'traditional for their gender'? Jobs for the Boys and Girls 1 Sally Rice, social affairs correspondent, investigates. A recent report by the Equal Opportunities Commission, called 'Free to Choose, says that schools and employers are still 1 Soars J., Soars L. Op. cit P
56 recommending some careers only for boys and others only for girls. The government has to take action on this, says the EOC. At school, boys and girls continue to study subjects that are traditional for their gender, and they continue to get poor careers advice. Employers for some jobs still choose young people because of their gender, not their ability. For example, less than 3 % of men work in childcare in Britain, and only 1 % of women work in building, engineering, and plumbing. So what's it like for someone to cross the gender gap at work? 4. Work in two groups. Read the texts in groups and answer the questions about Jenny or Alex. 56 Group A: Read about Jenny. Group В: Read about Alex. 1. What did she/he study? 2. What is she/he doing now? Why? 3. Who has she/he had problems with? Why? 4. Does she/he like the career she/he finally chose? 5. What advice does she/he give to other people who want to do the same thing? 5. Compare your answers with a partner from the other group. Jenny Boland plumber: We don t want women here. Jenny, a plumber from Harrow, says she has to fight sexism and prejudice every day in her job. A few years ago, while Jenny was studying psychology at college, she had a problem in her bathroom and had to call a plumber. 'I watched the plumber while he was working, and I was fascinated. I wanted to learn how to do it/ But she has had a lot of problems with male plumbers from the very beginning. Jenny says, 'Some of them have been really horrible. It's been so difficult to change their negative opinion of me. They are so sure that I can't do plumbing just because I'm female. One employer told me, This is a job for big strong men. We don't want women here.
57 But what do the customers think? 'Oh, the customers have been great!' she says. 'A lot of them actually prefer a female plumber!' Jenny loves her job. 'I get so much satisfaction from plumbing. I just love fixing things!' What is her advice to other women who want to try nontraditional careers? 'You should definitely try it, but you have to be tough,' she says. Alex Karlsson nanny: Some nany agencies didn t want me at all. Alex was an engineering student in Sweden until three years ago. But he found it boring and decided to change careers. He has always loved children, and now he is a qualified male nanny (or 'manny'!) to 18-month-old Jack. But he has had some problems. 'There is prejudice. A lot of people don't think that a man can look after a child as well as a woman. Some nanny agencies didn't want me at all,' he said. 'Some parents didn't want a man looking after their children. I had to wait nearly a year for my first job.' But does he like his new career? 'I love it!' says Alex. 'Jack was 10 weeks old when I started looking after him. I don't think it's strange to feed him and change his nappy it's my profession. It's wonderful to be part of his development. I love playing with him, and teaching him things as well.' What is his advice for other men who want to work in childcare. 'You should go for it!' he says. 'Ignore the prejudice. Just show them you can do it! 6. Work in pairs. What do you think? 1. Who has had the more difficult time: Jenny or Alex? 2. Would you like to do what they did? 3. Is it more difficult for women to do men's jobs or men to do women's jobs? 4. Is this a problem in your country? Why? Why not? Can you give any examples? 57
58 Text B 1. Answer the questions before reading the article. 1. Who is the modern student? 2. How does the modern style of life influence students? 3. Why do most students work? 4. Do all students finish their study? 2. Match the words with their explanations. 1) Sainsbury's; 2) London Guildhall; 3) juggling study; 4) commute; 5) hurl abuse at smb; 6) aversion; a) travel some distance regularly between one's home and one's place of work/study; b) a hall, belonging to the corporation of the city of London which is used for official occasions; c) a British supermarket; d) keep with difficulty several activities in progress; e) extreme dislike; f) utter with force a protest to smb. 3. Skim the extract from the article «The student of 2000: more work, less pay» published in the Daily Telegraph. Then do the tasks after it. 58 Who is the Modern Student? 1 Who is the modern student? The athlete with his college scarf? The blue, stocking, cycling to her lecture? The activist hurling abuse at a politician? These days the students you are most likely to meet are the checkout girl at Sainsbury's or the waiter in your favourite bistro. The modern student works: full-time student no longer means someone who spends time in libraries or lectures, with an occasional 1 Ястребова Е. Б., Владыкина Л. Г., Ермакова М. В. Курс английского языка для студентов языковых вузов (Coursebook for Upper Intermediate Students) : учеб. пособие. М. : Экзамен, С. 190.
59 vacation job. At many universities, most students have jobs during termtime. At London Guildhall, more than 80 per cent of our students work during term for between five and 25 hours a week. Why do they do it? For some, it is certainly to fund a car or to finance evenings in the pub. For many, however, whose families are too poor to help, it is to keep body and soul together. Some have a natural aversion to building up a large debt to the Student Loans Company. Many mature students feel guilty about their wives, husbands or children supporting them during a college course, and work to reduce the burden. Juggling study with work is hard. It requires skills of time management that would be envied by many management consultants. As one student, Aidan, put it to me: I need lectures to start at 10am, not because of a party the night before but because then I can use a cheap railcard. I must be away by 4pm to pick up my daughter, leave her with her gran, and get to my evening job. When do I write my essays? Well, there's the weekend and early mornings. Many students still live in college rooms or halls of residence. But others stay at or close to home, where jobs are easier to come by. Often, they commute to classes and live in cramped accommodation, a shared room where there is nowhere to study. There is not enough money for books, let alone a computer. It is no surprise that they sometimes wonder if they can cope or will be forced to drop out. 4. Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. A modern full-time student is someone who spends time in libraries or lectures. 2. Nowadays most students have jobs during term-time. 3. Under 80 per cent of British students work during the term. 4. The students are not afraid to receive a loan in the bank. 5. British students still live in college rooms or halls of residence. 5. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. 1. What are the problems that students face in Russia? 2. Are the problems of young and mature students similar? 3. Do full-time students work in Russia? 59
60 4. Is it possible to combine day study with work? 5. What are the major differences between students in Russia and in Britain? 6. Work in pairs. Use the phrases to discuss your opinions on the issue. Asking Opinion Do you agree that What do you feel about What's your view on Where do you stand on I'd like your view on Giving Opinion In my opinion In my view Personally, I think To my mind I think e.g. Do you agree that the modern student spends less time in libraries and at lectures? Yes, I do. I think the modern student spends most of his/her time earning money to pay tuition fee. 60 Stop and Check 1 Do the tasks below. There are two points for each correct answer. 1. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. computers from children lasts part-time 1) I don't want a full-time job. I'd prefer to work. 2) Where do you come? 3) In my job I look after all the in the building. 4) Do you have any? Yes, a son. 5) The course three years. 2. Write the last three letters in each word. 6) stud a person following a course of study 7) undergradu a person studying in a university for a first degree 8) fashion desig a person who designs clothes
61 9) econom a specialist in economics 10) collea a fellow worker or member of a staff 3. Put down the missing words. 11) What do you study? I study English. 12) What s your? I m Lisa. 13) He s a student. He at American University. 14) What's your? I work in marketing. 15) My secretary appointments for me. 4. Choose the right form of the verb in brackets. 16) Now you (is/are) undergraduates. My congratulations! 17) Paul (have got/has got) two brothers. 18) Tom and I (am/are) groupmates. 19) My elder sister (don t have/doesn t have) a car. 20) There (is/are) a lot of textbooks on the table. 21) There (is/are) a pen and two copybooks in my bag. 22) I (am studying/study) Politics at university this year. 23) Every morning I (am going/go) to my work by bus. 24) Now I (am doing/do) a degree of BA. 25) He (works/is working) as a designer in this company. 5. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb. 26) What language do you speak? I (speak) English and Russian. 27) I (not write) a letter at the moment. I have time to talk with you. 28) Every day I (type) letters to send to the bank. 29) Look! Brian (give) a presentation to his colleagues. 30) What do you do? I (work) for an international company. 31) I (not understand) this task. Can you explain it to me. 32) Every day I come to my boss and (give) him morning correspondence. 33) My day usually (finish) at about 7 p.m. 61
62 34) What (you/do) at the moment? I m designing a new car. 35) We (are going/go) to the library twice a week. 6. Put the words in the correct order. 36) in / the classroom / are / any / chairs / there? 37) from / where / she / does / come? 38) he / how many / languages / does / speak? 39) you / do / attend / always / lectures? 40) you / have / got / a computer? 7. Read the text. Mark if the statements below are true or false (41 45). The man with 13 jobs Seumas McSporran is a very busy man. He is 60 years old and he has thirteen jobs. He is a postman, a policeman, a fireman, a taxi driver, a schoolbus driver, a boatman, an ambulance man, an accountant, a petrol attendant, a barman, and an undertaker. Also, he and his wife, Margaret, have a shop and a small hotel. Seumas lives and works on the island of Gigha / gijə/ in the West of Scotland. Only 120 people live in Gigha, but in summer 150 tourists come by boat every day. Every weekday Seumas gets up at 6.00 and makes breakfast for the hotel guests. At 8.00 he drives the island s children to school. At 9.00 he collects the post from the boat and delivers it to all the houses on the island. He also delivers the beer to the island s only pub. Then he helps Margaret in the shop. He says: «Margaret likes being busy, too. We never have holidays and we don t like watching television. In the evenings Margaret makes supper and I do the accounts. At we have a glass of wine and then we go to bed. Perhaps our life isn t very exciting, but we like it». 62
63 41) His wife doesn t work. 42) Seumas lives on the island. 43) They like their life. 44) Every evening they watch TV. 45) Every morning Seumas drives children to school. 8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 46) Я учусь на бакалавра гуманитарных наук. 47) Обычно я добираюсь до института на автобусе. 48) Многие студенты учатся и работают. 49) Секретарь печатает и отправляет письма. 50) Мой брат работает в банке. Total Score: 100 LITERATURE (Библиографический список) Основная литература 1. Качалова, К. Н. Практическая грамматика английского языка с упражнениями и ключами / К. Н. Качалова, Е. Е. Израилевич. Москва : ЮНВЕС : Лист, С , , Тамчук, В. В. Практическая фонетика английского языка: (для переводчиков в сфере проф. коммуникации) : практикум / В. В. Тамчук ; СибАГС. Новосибирск, с. Дополнительная литература 1. Harrison, M. Oxford Living Grammar: Pre-Intermediate : Lean and Practise Grammar in Context: with answers: [оксфорд. живая грамматика: нач. курс : учеб. пособие] / M. Harrison. Oxford : Oxford Univ. press, P. 2 9, Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use: A Self-Study Referens and Practice Book for Intermediate Students with Answers / R. Murphy. 2-nd ed. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press, P. 2 9, Интернет-ресурсы 1. Cambridge Dictionaries Online [Electronic resource] : the most popular online dictionary and thesaurus for learners of English. Cam- 63
64 bridge University Press, Access of code : cambridge.org. Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 2. Study Learn.ru [Электронный ресурс] : все для тех, кому нужен англ. язык. Режим доступа : Москва, 1997 Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 3. Мультитран [Электронный ресурс] : электрон. словарь. Режим доступа : Загл. с экрана. 64
65 UNIT 2. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Topic 1. Business Meetings Reading 1. Study the Word List. introduce smb to someone представиться receive a business card получать визитную карточку carefully осторожно support поддержка human resources manager менеджер по управлению персоналом сatch здесь расслышать in charge of отвечать за что-то/быть ответственным at last наконец overseas subsidiary зарубежное дочернее предприятие conversation беседа head office головной офис 65
66 graduate выпускник trainee programme программа обучения department отдел disadvantage недостаток 2. Answer the questions using the words from the Word List: What do you think are the basics of a successful meeting? Do you think one style of communicating is good for every case? What mistakes can you remember when meeting people? What went wrong? Why? 3. Read the text paying attention to the words in bold. A Bad Introduction 1 It was the boss s first day in his new job, so he walked around the office and introduced himself to everyone. He offered his business card to each person in the usual way: he held it with two hands, so that the other person could read it easily. But one man in the office said, I don`t want your business card. I already know who you are. Please take it, said the boss and smiled. Slowly, the man took the business card and then he folded it in two. Everyone in the office knew that this was very rude. When you receive a business card in this country, you always have to read it very carefully. In fact, the next day the story was in the newspapers and the boss got more than 10, 000 s of support from people right across the country. 4. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). 1) It was the boss s third day in his new job. 2) He offered a cup of tea to each person in the usual way Evans, D. Power Elementary. Pearson Education Limited, P. 83.
67 3) But one man in the office said that he didn t want his business card. 4) Nobody in the office knew that this was very rude. 5) In fact, the next day many people knew about this story. 5. Open the brackets. 1. Mr. Dickens is in charge (on / of) all subsidiaries. 2. He (proposes / offers) his business card to each person. 3. My uncle is a very rude person he never introduces himself (for / to) anyone. 4. I hear the phone is (calling / ringing) in the next room. 5. I work (on / for) the International company. 6. Read expressions (1 8). They can all be used in the first few minutes of a meeting. Match them with the functions (a h). 1) Glad to see you again! 2) I m Jan Davis, the Human Resources Manager. 3) I m sorry I didn t catch your name. Can you say it again? 4) I m sorry, I don t know your name. 5) Hi! How are you? 6) This is Carla Suarez. She s in charge of exports. 7) Good morning. Pleased to meet you. 8) Nice to meet you at last! a) Greet someone you ve never met before. b) Check someone s name if you didn t hear it very well. c) Greet someone you often meet. d) Greet someone you haven t met though you ve had contact with them by phone or . e) Greet someone you ve met before, some time ago. f) Introduce yourself. g) Introduce a colleague. h) Ask someone what their name is. 67
68 7. Walk around the room and try to talk to each person very briefly. 68 Greet the other person and introduce yourself. Say where you work and what your job is. Find out the name, company and job of the other person. 8. What do you do when someone you haven t met before visits you in your office? In what order do you do these things? Mark your answers and then discuss your ideas with the rest of the group. Hand over your business card Shake hands with your visitor Greet the visitor with a formal greeting Introduce yourself Ask about their journey to your company Ask about your visitor s company and work Invite your visitor to sit down Be ready to meet your visitor at the appointed time Say good morning or good afternoon Offer something to drink Get down to business Grammar Present Simple Present Continuous 9. Complete the text about a management training scheme with verbs from the box in Present Simple or Present Continuous. get learn offer spend want work not have not earn Ines Garcia is a Spanish graduate in business administration and she (1) wants to have a career in business management. At present, she (2) for a large telecommunications company in Madrid. It is a one-year graduate trainee programme and she (3) any guarantee of a job at the end of the year. The company usually (4) jobs to only a few of the best trainees Ines hopes to be one of these. Trainees on the programme (5) up to six weeks
69 working in different departments. This is usually helpful because the trainees (6) useful work experience. A disadvantage is that trainees (7) very much money. Ines says It s a hard life just now, but it s good experience and I (8) a lot of new things. 10. Open the brackets. Matt Gina, can I (introduce / am introducing) Tony Lloyd, our Marketing Manager. Tony, this is Gina Tallarigo from our Rome office. Tony Very pleased to meet you, Gina. I (hear / am hearing) you had a difficult journey last night. Gina Yes, the weather was very bad, and my plane couldn t take off. Tony What time does the meeting start, Matt? Matt Tony Gina Tony Ten thirty. OK, we (have / are having) half an hour. Perhaps I can show Gina round the office. Would you like to have a look around, Gina? That would be great. Thank you, Tony. OK, let s go. 11. Decide if the sentences below contain mistakes. Change the form of the verb where necessary. 1. We re not liking the new computer system. 2. How many boxes do you need? 3. Smiths are seeming interested in our products. 4. Paul s travelling to New York next week. 5. Is Marta preferring the second option? 12. Choose the correct form of the verbs in italics. 1. She write / writes training programmes. 2. The company doesn t / isn t making a profit. 3. They are having / have a meeting. 4. We don t finishing / finish work at 6pm. 5. That printer doesn t / isn't work. 6. Are / Do you often visit head office? 69
70 70 7. What time is / does Geoff arriving? 8. I m not / I don t understand the problem. 13a. Decide if uses (1 8) are usually associated with Present Simple (PS) or Present Continuous (PC). 1) facts and permanent situations PS 2) action and events in progress now 3) arrangements for the future 4) verbs of thinking and feeling 5) habits and routines 6) temporary situations 7) fixed timetable 8) current trends and changes 13b. Match sentences (a h) with uses (1 8). a) She s talking on another line right now, can I ask her to call you back? b) We offer a networking solution that is reliable and secure. c) We release figures for total sales every quarter. d) I m arriving in Munich at 10:30. e) The plane arrives in Munich at 10:30. f) I m working in our customer services department this month. g) Internet fraud is increasing all over the world. h) OK, I understand what the problem is now. 14. Put the time expressions from the list below into two categories: those usually used with the Present Simple, and those usually used with the Present Continuous. Write the expression in correct column. after, always, as soon as, before, currently, every day, hardly ever, never, at the moment, most of thе time, next time, normally, now, nowadays, occasionally, often, rarely sometimes, these days, twice a year, until, usually, when Present Simple Present Continuous After currently
71 Listening 15. Paul Larousse works in an overseas subsidiary of Lisa Guzman s company. Listen to the conversation and decide if Paul is visiting the head office for the first time for an international team meeting or not. ( 5) 16. Look again at the list in ex. 8 and identify the things Lisa did. Number them in order. 17. What expressions did Lisa use for: apologising? asking about Paul s journey? inviting Paul to sit down? offering something to drink? Speaking 1. In each situation below, a host receives a visitor from abroad. Take turns to play host and visitor. Before you start, decide which country each of you is from and in which country you are meeting. You can use real personal information or invent new identities. Act out the greetings and introductions, and if appropriate, make some general conversation, as in the listening activity. You don't have to discuss any business matters. Situation 1 The visitor is from an overseas subsidiary and is visiting head office to meet counterparts in the accounts department. You have not met before but have communicated by and phone. Visitor: You arrive very late because your flight was delayed. Situation 2 The host and visitor meet regularly once a month, usually for 1 2 hours. 71
72 Visitor: You are from the head office. You travel a lot visiting different subsidiaries and coordinating joint projects. Host: You don t have the opportunity to travel much. Situation 3 The host and visitor work for the same company. The last time you met was two years ago at a conference in Scotland. Since then, you have both been promoted to new positions in the company. You are going to start working together on a project. Situation 4 The visitor and host are meeting to discuss an ongoing contract between your two companies. The visitor represents the supplier. You have not met before, but the host knows some of the visitor s colleagues in the export sales department. Visitor: This is a new job for you, and it is your first time in the host s country. Writing 1. Read the profile of Derek Stirling and then write another profile about yourself. Use the topics below to help you. name company responsibilities nationality position of the company hobbies home town Profile My name is Derek Stirling and I m Scottish. I live in Hadlow, a lovely English village near London, and I work for the Swire Group, Britain s largest private company. The Group s activities are divided into five business areas: shipping, aviation, property, industries, and trading. Our best-known company is Cathay Pacific Airways. I work at our London head office; I m head of Corporate Finance, and I m responsible for developing the business of the Group. 72
73 I m always very busy and I don t have much free time, but when I do, I like fishing and I grow my own vegetables, just for fun. Topic 2. Telephoning Reading 1. Study the Word List. answer the phone отвечать на телефонный звонок voice голос receptionist администратор friendly дружелюбный polite вежливый busy занятой interrupt прерывать remember помнить switch on включать call back перезвонить ignore игнорировать take a deep breath тяжело вздохнуть hang up брать трубку 73
74 2. Answer the questions. 1. How often do you have to answer the phone? 2. Are you polite when you answer the phone? 3. Do you always answer your phone? 4. Do you stop a conversation to answer the phone? 3. Read the text and do the tasks after it. How many ways to say hello? 1 When two people meet in Tokyo they say konnichiha which means hello. But if they answer the phone, they say moshi moshi. Japan isn t the only country to have its own special telephone language. The Spanish say hola for hello but on the phone they answer digame. Literally translated digame means tell me but this sounds very rude in English. Similarly, if a caller heard the words: I m ready in London or New York, they d think this was very strange. They d ask ready for what?. But in Italy the word pronto! means exactly this. The rules for answering the phone in the international workplace seem to be more universal. Phone a business number and the receptionist is likely to say the name of the company and answer more politely or formally. For example, in English you make the polite offer of help with How can I help you? But even this isn t quite as polite as the very formal Norwegian response: vaer so god literally meaning be so good. Is it one of those days when the phone just won t stop ringing? By call number four you still answer the phone with a friendly, polite Good morning, how can I help you? But four hours later, twenty calls later and you ve lost your smile. You must finish the report for your boss and now with all these calls you ll have to work late tonight. So if that telephone rings one more time, don t hang up, don t scream Yes! at the poor caller. Take a deep breath and smile. I know the caller can t see you, but a smile makes your voice sound friendly and polite, a smile makes you feel better and it makes your colleagues in the office feel better Hughes J. Telephone English. Macmillan Education, P
75 Why is it that we will say to someone: Sorry, I m busy right now. Can we talk later? but when the phone rings we stop what we re doing and answer it? We even interrupt our conversations to answer the phone. Our friends can wait, but our phone just won t! When you re busy, remember these simple techniques: switch on your voic ; ask them to call back again later; ask someone else to answer and take a message; give people times when you are free to answer calls; ignore the phone! 4. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. Many nationalities greet people differently on the phone than they do face-to-face. 2. The Spanish are impolite. 3. When an Italian meets you in the street he greets you with the words I m ready. 4. At work, different nationalities use a similar approach to answering the phone. 5. How do you answer the phone? Tick what you do. 1) greet the caller () 2) say your name () 3) say your company s name () 4) say your department s name () 5) say your telephone number () 6) offer to help the caller () 6. Study the table below and decide if sentences 1 10 are correct ( ) or incorrect (X). Сan I speak to someone about + noun / verb + -ing I m calling about + noun / verb + -ing It s with regard to + noun / verb + -ing It s about + noun / verb + -ing I m phoning because of + noun 75
76 76 I d like to + infinitive I m phoning to + infinitive 1. Is there someone I can speak to about applying for the course? () 2. There s someone on the line calling about the new job. () 3. I m calling arrange a meeting. () 4. It s with regard to place an order. () 5. It s about Natalie, I m afraid. () 6. I m phoning because of requesting a brochure. () 7. I like speaking to someone about the project. () 8. I d like to have a chat. () 9. I m phoning to ask for a catalogue. () 10. It s with regard to your request for a brochure. () 7. Sometimes the person who answers the phone has to connect the caller to another person. Underline the correct word in italics in these phrases for connecting the caller. 1. I ll put / connect you through 2. Let me just see if someone s available to answer / deal with this 3. You need to speak to my colleague. I ll try / transfer his number for you. 4. I ll just connect / call you to the person in charge of this 5. I ll transfer / put you to Silvia. 6. I ll put you on / back through to reception. Grammar Future Simple To be going to Modal verbs: can, could 8. Complete the sentences with will / won't and the words in brackets. 1. I promise I (call) you later. 2. I m sorry about what happened yesterday. It (happen) again.
77 3. I (try) calling again tomorrow. 4. Can you wait for me? I (be) very long. 5. I (call) you back in about 5 minutes. 9. Complete the sentences with to be going to and the words in brackets. 1. I (book) a table for tonight. 2. you (call) him back? 3. I (call) John this afternoon. 4. We (meet) them at their office. 10. Complete the sentences with can / can t and the verbs in the box. 1. Good morning, how I (help) you? 2. you (take) a message? 3. I (hear) you properly. 4. Sorry, that is too fast for me. you (speak) more slowly? 5. This is a terrible line. I (hear) a thing. 11. Put the words in the correct order. 1) you / I / help / can? 2) take / message / can / a / I? 3) room / in / book / this / I / advance / can t. 4) do / it / I / for / can / you. 5) someone / brochure / can / to / speak / receiving / I / a / about? 12. Complete Bruce and Naomi s conversation with the appropriate future forms. Naomi Bruce Hi, Bruce. It s Naomi here. I m calling about the conference in Shanghai. We (1) (have to) make some changes. Hi, Naomi. OK, hang on, let me get a pen. Right, fire away. 77
78 Naomi Bruce Naomi Bruce Naomi Bruce I don t think the Yangtze Garden (2) (be) big enough. We (3) (need) a centre that can seat at least 600. That many? Any suggestions? The Mandarin palace Center (4) (be) free that day. I ve already spoken to them and I (5) (meet) the conference manager tomorrow. It (6) (mean) increasing the registration fee by $50 through. That (7) (not / be) a problem. Anything else? Alasdair Ross can t do the morning session as his plane (8) (not / land) until 9:30, so I ve arranged things with Jimmy Tan and they (9) (switch) slots. Also, Milan University say they (10) (send) Carla Marisco because Professor Bertoni can t make it. But the talk (11) (be) the same. Fine. Make those changes and I (12) (inform) everyone at my end. 78 Listening 13. Underline the correct phrases in italics in the call. Then listen to the phone call and check your answers. ( 6) RECEPTION (1) Tell me / Good morning. AIC computing. JOH Sales, please. RECEPTION One moment. SALES (2) Ready / Hello. Sales. (3) Can I help you? / What do you want? JOHN Yes. (4) Give me / Can I speak to Vitale Marini, please? SALES Certainly. One moment. VITALE Vitale Marini (5) speaking / talking. JOHN Hi Vitale. (6) I am / It s John Peterson here. VITALE Oh John. How are you?
79 14. Listen to these phrases. The speaker always sounds friendly and polite. ( 7) 1. Good morning. Can I help you? 2. I m very sorry, but he s away today. 3. Can I help? 4. Good morning, Berry Technologies. 5. I don t know when he ll be back. 6. One moment. I ll put you through. 7. Can I take a message? 8. I m just looking for a pen. 9. Speak to you soon. 10. Goodbye. 15. Listen to it again and repeat the phrases. Remember to smile and sound friendly and polite. We can also sound more friendly and polite because of the words we use. For example, the first sentence here is less friendly than the second. ( 8) 1. Carlsen International. 2. Carlsen International. How can I help you? 16. Add words from the first phrase in bold to complete the second friendly and polite phrase. 1. What s your name? Sorry, could I have your name? 2. Who do you want to speak to? Who would you like? 3. She s in a meeting. I m afraid. 4. He s talking to someone. One moment. He s just. 5. Do you want to wait? Would like hold? 6. What s it about? Can 1 ask it s in connection with? 79
80 7. Wait! I need to find a pen. Sorry, I m just looking for. Speaking 1. A relocations consultant phones a client to make an appointment. Look at the diaries and role-play the telephone conversation. Use the phrases below to help you. 1. What can I do for you? 2. I d like to arrange an appointment. 3. Are you free at the end of the month? 4. What date s good for you? 5. I m afraid I m busy on the 28 th. 6. How about Wednesday the 29 th? 7. Let s say around 9 o clock? 8. OK, I ll see you at 1:30 on Thursday the 30 th. Student A You are a relocations consultant. Look at your diary. Phone your client and ask to make an appointment. MONDAY (16 th ) TUESDAY (17 th ) WEDNESDAY (18 th ) THURSDAY (19 th ) FRIDAY (2O th ) Relocations conference Antwerp Relocations conference Antwerp l 3pm meet JG 3:30 6 pm interview for new PA 10 am presentation 11:30 am 2 pm working lunch TK 8:30 11 am relocations meeting with BL 3 4:30 pm meeting with project managers Student B You are a client. Look at your diary. You receive a call from the relocations consultant. He / She wants to make an appointment. MONDAY (16 th ) 2 30 pm productivity meeting TUESDAY (17 th ) 10 arn 12 pm staff appraisals 80
81 WEDNESDAY (18 th ) THURSDAY (19 th ) FRIDAY (20 th ) 9 10:30 am finish report 11 am- 12:30 pm meeting with CEO 2 4 pm meet visitors from New York office 8 9:30 am prepare figures for finance meeting 3:30 5 pm finance meeting 2. The client from Exercise 1 phones the relocations consultant to change the appointment. Take turns to be the client and the relocations consultant. Try to find another date and time when you are both available. Client: Look again at the diary on page 99, and cross out two appointments. Phone the relocations consultant. Apologise and explain that you need to change your appointment. Relocations consultant: Look again at the diary on page 96 and cross out two appointments. Your client phones and wants to change your appointment. Writing 1. Translate the text from Russian into English. Правила ведения телефонных разговоров, в основном, одинаковы во всех странах. Мы хотели бы перечислить лишь наиболее общие правила так называемого «телефонного этикета»: всегда говорите четко, ясно и кратко; неправильно набрав номер, извинитесь; набрав номер и услышав голос собеседника, представьтесь; убедитесь в том, что вы правильно поняли передаваемую вам информацию; 81
82 не стесняйтесь переспросить, если вы не все поняли, и при необходимости записать услышанное; желательно, чтобы тот, кто набрал номер, начал говорить первым, и первым закончил разговор; не забудьте передать третьему лицу то, о чем вас просил собеседник. 2. Plan your next telephone call in English. Complete the plan below. 1. Who am I calling? 2. Best time of day to call? 3. If that person isn t available, is there anyone else I can speak to? 4. Objectives of the call? 5. Questions the other person might ask? 6. Useful phrases I can use? 7. What will I say if I have to leave a message? Topic 3. Business Correspondence Reading 1. Study the Word List. 82
83 essential неотъемлемая часть addressee адресат, получатель routine типовой, стандартный, регулярный joint venture совместное предприятие taking into account принимая во внимание frequently зачастую, нередко, обычно business relationships деловые отношения appropriate подходящий trademark license лицензия на торговую марку signature подпись illegible handwriting неразборчивый почерк exchange letters обмениваться письмами make an impression on производить впечатление на коголибо 2. Answer the questions. 1. Why is letter writing still important today? 2. Where is sender s address written? 3. How are dates written? 4. What salutations can be used at the beginning of the letter? 5. What are the most commonly used complimentary clauses? 3. Read the text paying attention to the words in bold and do the task after it. Business letters 1 Letter writing is an essential part of business communication. A check, a contract or any other business paper sent by mail should always be accompanied by a letter. The letter says what is being sent, that the addressee should know exactly what you intended to send. In a typical business letter called routine. Nowadays more and more agreements are made in English, for English is a universal business language. Joint ventures agreements, bank loans, and trademark licenses are frequently written in English. 1 Агабекян И. П. English for Managers. Английский для менеджеров : учеб. пособие. М. : ТК Велби ; Проспект, С
84 With the appearance of electronic mail, voice mail, and faxes, good letter writing is loosing its importance. And yet, a well-written business letter can help a lot in your business relationships. A well arranged letter will make a better impression on the reader, thus good letters make good business partners. Business correspondence does not have to be dry and dull. In fact, the most effective business letters often touch on very personal matters, not just on money or the bottom line. Taking into account today s informational overload it is important to be short and to the point in most of your correspondence. There are basically two types of business letters: formal business letters and informal business letters. Very often, there is a small difference between the two. Formal business letters do not have to be all business. They may include one or two personal sentences or touch on a personal subject. However, they are still formal business letters. There are several rules that you should follow when writing a formal business letter. Use company letterhead when appropriate. Company letterhead should only be used for business, not for personal matters. Use the proper salutation to open the letter. If the addressee is more or less known to you and who is more or less your peer, then the proper salutation would be Dear Jane. If the addressee is an executive level person and you do not feel comfortable using their first name, both names can be used (i.e., Dear Jane Doe ). If you are a young executive who has just been introduced to a senior executive, do not use their first name in correspondence since it may seem lacking in respect. Instead use the more formal introduction, Dear Ms. Doe. Use a complimentary closing. For any formal business correspondence, using either Sincerely or Sincerely yours is an appropriate way to close your letter. Always sign your letter. Many letters include a typed signature block followed by a handwritten signature. The primary reason for this is that many people s handwriting is illegible. However, it is a serious error to only include the typed signature. Make sure you include your written signature underneath the typed signature underneath the typed signature block. 84
85 Business executives exchange informal letters on a regular basis these days. These letters are most commonly used to please the addressee in some manner. Examples of informal letters include congratulatory letters, complimentary letters, requests for favors, thank you letters, and letters of encouragement. 4. Match the words (1 5) with the words (a e) to complete the phrases. 1) handwritten; 2) company; 3) business; 4) illegible; 5) to please; a) addressee; b) letterhead; c) signature; d) handwriting; e) correspondence. 5. Match the words and word-combinations in the left column with their equivalents in the right column. 1. Thank you letters; 2. Complimentary letters; 3. Requests for favours; 4. Letters of encouragement; 5. Congratulatory letters; a) поздравительные письма; b) благодарственные письма; c) поощрительное письмо; d) письмо о помощи; e) поздравительные письма. 6. Read the text again. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. Do not use any rules when writing a formal business letter. 2. Many letters include a typed signature block followed by a handwritten signature. 3. Business executives don t use informal letters on a regular basis these days. 4. Examples of informal letters include congratulatory letters, complimentary letters, requests for favors, thank you letters, and letters of encouragement. 5. Company letterhead should be used for personal matters. 85
86 6. It is important to be short and to the point in most of your correspondence. 7. There is a small difference between formal business letters and informal business letters. 7a. Read these s. A I need the test results urgently. Can you please send them right away so we can get on with the next stage of the project. Thanks. Timo B Hi, Jean I know you re busy but we need the test results urgently. We can t start the next stage of the project without them. Is there any way you can send them today or tomorrow? I d really appreciate it. Thanks Timo 7b. Answer the questions. 1. If you want someone to help you, is it better to be strong or to be polite? 2. Which of the s above is more polite? 3. Which is better if you are: writing to a close colleague? writing to someone in another company? the boss? writing to someone you don t know well? 8. Read this letter to a customer. Match each section of the letter (1 8) with its description (a h). 86
87 Trevor Jackson Apex Finance plc Apex House Channel Port Sussex BN35 2XX FITIT SOLUTIONS 26 August Dear Mr Jackson 2. Proposal for IT maintenance contract* 3. Thank you for an excellent meeting on Friday. 4. As promised, I enclose** our proposal for your IT maintenance contract. 5. Please let me know if you have any questions. 6. I look forward to hearing from you. 7. Yours sincerely. 8. Sandra Galvas a) Subject line, b) Offer to be helpful, c) Name and title, d) Formal greeting, e) Refer to future contact, f) Formal ending, g) Refer to previous contact / correspondence, h) Refer to enclosure / attachment. Grammar To be going to Future Simple 9. Complete the (1 7) with the words from the box. 87
88 88 book discuss know invite join sign visit To: Viktor Sharansky From: Renate Schmidt Subject: Meeting in Frankfurt, Wednesday 1 st November Dear Viktor I understand you are coming to Frankfurt for the meeting next Wednesday. One of our most important clients, Max Wursig, is going to (1) our office on the same day to (2) a new contract. I m going to (3) him to the Rathaus restaurant for dinner on Wednesday evening. Can you (4) us? I know he wants to (5) your new research, and this would be a good opportunity. Please let me (6) as soon as you can, and I will (7) a table for three at 7.30 p.m. Best regards Renate 10. Complete the sentences (1 5) with the words and phrases from the box. am planning / flying / going to / hope to / meeting / starts / will have For example: As you can see from my schedule, I m going to be out of the office next week. 1. On Saturday, I m to Dubai for the opening of our new offices there. 2. The opening ceremony at 3 p.m. on Monday. 3. On Tuesday evening, I dinner with the local staff. 4. I meet some of our more important contacts in the city. 5. I to stay for five or six days.
89 11. Choose the correct future form of the verbs in italics. 1. The management have decided that they are going to / will close the Paris branch next year. 2. Can you check Pieter's diary? Will he meet / Is he meeting the new CEO today? 3. I saw the plans; they are going to / will expand the warehouse. 4. Oh, look, we ve run out of copier paper. I ll get / I m getting some from the stationery cupboard. 5. He won t come / isn t coming into work today; he s working at home. 6. She ll be / She s being a director in a year or two. 7. I can tell you now, when you ask the staff, they aren t accepting / going to accept your proposal. 8. Is that the phone? Leave it, I m going to / I ll answer it. 12. Underline the correct words in multi-dialogue. 1. A: Are you free next Tuesday morning? B: Sorry, I ll have / I m having a meeting with Sue. A: Oh, right. Well, what about Tuesday? 2. A: What are your plans for next year? B: We ll open / We re going to open a new factory in Hungary. A: That sounds interesting. 3. A: What do you think about their new marketing campaign? B: I think it ll probably succeed / it s probably succeeding. A: Do you really? 4. A: What about tomorrow at around 5:30? B: OK, I ll see you then. / I m seeing you then. A: Bye. 5. A: So as you can see, I ve been thinking about this problem quite a lot. B: Yes, I see. So, what are you going to do? / what are you doing? A: Resign! 6. A: It would be nice to see you next week. 89
90 B: Yes, it would. Are you doing anything / Will you do anything on Wednesday? A: No, I m free. 13. Read the to Roy about his visit to a supplier next week. Put the verbs in brakets into the correct future form. Hi, Roy You (1) (meet) Lisa Clark, the Sales Manager at 11 am next Thursday. I (2) (not have) time to book your plane ticket this morning. I (3) (book) it this afternoon. Jack hopes you (4) (meet) him for lunch on Friday, if you have time. He s (5) (contact) you at your hotel tomorrow evening. Are you stay at the Continental Hotel again? I expect they (6) (have) vacancies. I (7) (phone) you later to check. Best wishes Sarah 14. Complete the sentences by putting the verbs in brackets into the most appropriate future form. Choose between will and going to. 1. Have you heard the news? Vivendi is going to buy (buy) Seagram. 2. I ve just had a call from Richard He (be) late. 3. Next year (be) the company s centenary year. 4. This taxi driver is terrible. He (have) an accident. 5. In the future video-conferences (probably replace) many international meeting. 6. We (test) the new machine sometime next week. 7. Would you mind waiting for a moment? I (not be) long. 90 Listening 15. Anna Davidson, a training manager and expert in business communication, talks about virtual teams: international teams which communicate mainly by . Listen to the first part. What are the
91 advantages and disadvantages of using to communicate with colleagues in other countries? ( 9) 16. Which of the following are most important when writing to a colleague in another country? Discuss your ideas with a partner. Tell your colleagues about yourself. Write only about work. Keep your message very short. If there is a problem, explain it carefully. Use polite phrases. 17. Now listen to the second part of Anna Davidson s talk. Tick the points above which she recommends. ( 10) Speaking 1. Discuss in pairs. 1. What is business correspondence in your opinion? 2. Do you think one type of business letter is good for every case? 3. What is important when writing a business letter / ? 4. What mistakes can you remember when writing a business letter / ? What went wrong? Why? Writing 1. The phrases below are from an to a customer about their order. Put the phrases in the correct sequence to create the . We have items A24 and B39 in stock due to a high demand for this product at the present time. Dear Ms Bundy We hope to receive new supplies within the next 7 10 days. and you should receive them in 2 3 days. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause. We regret that we are out of stock of item C2l 91
92 Thank you for your order dated March 30. Yours sincerely We will dispatch your order as soon as possible after that. 2. You receive the following enquiry. Write a reply. Include the points given in the notes. Dear Sir I am interested in the IT training courses you offer, as advertised in Training Monthly. Could you please send me a copy of your course programme for this year? My postal address is given above. Many thanks Don Bradshaw 92 Texts for Reading and Discussion 1. Answer the questions. Text A 1. What is a business meeting? 2. Do you know any tips for a successful meeting?
93 3. What mistakes can you remember when meeting business partners? 2. Read the text and do the tasks after it. Meeting Business Partners Any person who has achieved a modicum of success in their life necessarily has learned how to handle meetings, both formal and otherwise. Meetings are a reality of business and life. Most business people have meetings on a daily basis. We meet with business partners to discuss future and current business opportunities and to hammer out problems. We meet with colleagues to discuss strategy, tactics and plans of action. We meet with friends to discuss outings, vacations and other friends. Thus, we can see that meetings are a part of daily life. But have any of us thought about how to approach meetings? What are the dynamics of a meeting? How can we improve our meeting skills to get better results? This article won/t make you a meeting expert, but it will give you some pointers on how to get the most out of your business meetings. 3. Match the words (1 5) with the words (a e) to complete the phrases. 1) daily a) results 2) business b) skills 3) discuss c) basis 4) better d) meetings 5) improve e) strategy 4. Match the words and word-combinations in the left column with their equivalents in the right column. 1) meet with colleagues a) обсудить стратегию 2) daily basis b) возможности в бизнесе 3) get better results c) ежедневно 4) business opportunities d) встречаться с коллегами 93
94 5) discuss strategy e) достичь лучших результатов 5. Read the text again. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. This article will make you a meeting expert. 2. Meetings are a reality of business and life. 3. We meet with colleagues to discuss vacations and friends. 4. Most business people have meetings on a daily basis. 5. This article won t give you some pointers on how to get the most out of your business meetings Answer the questions. Text B 1. Why is it important to follow telephone etiquette? 2. Are you polite when you answer the phone? 3. What phrases of telephone etiquette do you know? 2. Read the text and do the tasks after it. Telephone Skills The telephone may be one of the most powerful, efficient and cost-effective business tools you have at your disposal. If things start out badly on the phone, they may never progress beyond the first call. Whether you use the phone for customer service or for sales calls as part of a telemarketing strategy, telephone manners and etiquette are critical components of a professional image. Through experience, you ll develop your own telephone style. You ll also find customers and prospects responding positively when you and your employees smile, listen and show personal interest! The following tips will help you use your «telephone tool» to its fullest: Smile when you re on the phone; your customers will hear it! Answer the phone pleasantly and maintain a pleasant demeanor while on the phone.
95 Never answer the phone with food in your mouth or try to eat quietly while talking. Return all phone calls within 48 hours When you place a call that you know might be lengthy, ask if it's a good time to talk before you begin that conversation. Know what you want to say before making an important call. Make a telephone appointment when you want to have a focused, longer (15 or more minutes) conversation with someone who is normally busy. Listen and respond to the person on the other end of the line. When you focus on them rather on what you re going to say next, the phone call becomes more conversational. 3. Match the words (1 5) with the words (a e) to complete the phrases. 1) telephone, a) interest, 2) the first, b) style, 3) personal, c) image, 4) answer, d) the phone, 5) professional, e) call. 4. Match the words and word-combinations in the left column with their equivalents in the right column. 1) important call, a) личный интерес, 2) personal interest, b) манеры и этикет, 3) becomes more conversational, c) пока разговариваете, 4) while on the phone, d) важный разговор, 5) manners and etiquette, e) становиться более разговорным. 5. Read the text again. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). 1. Return all phone calls within 2 days. 2. Don t smile when you re on the phone; your customers won t hear it! 95
96 3. Answer the phone pleasantly and maintain a pleasant demeanor while on the phone. 4. Always answer the phone with food in your mouth and do not try to eat quietly while talking. 5. Know what you want to say before making an important call. 96 Stop and Check 2 Do the tasks below. There are two points for each correct answer. 1. Fill in the gaps. What s the time, please? А. (1) А. We must hurry up. The delegation is arriving in half an hour. В. (2) There s a taxi over there. А. Hallo. Can I speak to Mr. Green? В. (3) А. This is Ahmed Ali. How are you, Mr. Green? В. (4) А. Very well too, thank you. When shall I see you? I want to discuss some business with you. В. (5)? А. Perfectly all right, thank you. I ll be at your office at ten on Monday. В. (6) А. As far as I know, Serge, you have customers in Frenchspeaking countries, don t you? В. (7) A French delegation is coming to Moscow, you know. А. (8)? В. This Tuesday. А. (9)? В. The prices and some other things. А. (10)?
97 В. All this week. 2. Jacqui Bond wrote an to Ili Enache about a meeting next week. The points from the message have been mixed up. Look at the recommended sequence of points below. Then order the message appropriately. I m afraid I may not be able to make the 8:00 start. The train connections can be very difficult at that time of day. Would it be possible to start at 9:00? It means we would finish at 17:00 instead of 16:00. Please let me know if that s a problem for you. Hello, Ili Best regards, Jacqui You asked me to send the feasibility report and I am attaching it here. Please note that this is not yet in final draft and there may be some mistakes. Thanks for sending the agenda for our meeting. I'm looking forward very much to seeing you next week. Recommended sequence of points 11. Friendly greeting. 12. Thanks or reference to previous contract. 13. Most important point / problem. 14. Important request. 15. Less important points. 16. Reference to future contact. 17. Ending. 3. Read the text. Telephone etiquette Just because you can t see the caller, it doesn t mean you have the right to suspend the normal rules of politeness. Be helpful to the caller even if the subject of the call is not strictly speaking your field of responsibility. This means trying to find someone who can help now, or someone who can ring them back later. Don t put the caller on hold and then leave them suspended there indefinitely. 97
98 Remember too that you give out subliminal signals by the tone of your voice, the clarity with which you speak, how fast you speak, the pitch of your voice. You should always devote your full attention to the call; mistakes and misunderstandings will arise if you are doing something else at the same time. Even if the call is a difficult or heated one, stay calm; try to be helpful and never slam the phone down. Things to avoid when on the phone It s easy to fall into the trap of believing that because your caller can t see you, they won't be affected by what you are doing and what's going on around you. Remember not to: let it ring more than four times; eat and drink while talking on the phone; be too familiar; talk to someone else in your office; have too much background noise; speak too quietly or too loudly; speak too quickly. 4. Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). 18. Eat and drink while talking on the phone. 19. Even if the call is a difficult or heated one, stay calm; try to be helpful and never slam the phone down. 20. Don t speak too quietly or too loudly. 21. Don t talk to someone else in your office. 22. Be helpful to the caller even if the subject of the call is not strictly speaking your field of responsibility. 5. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense. Stephen (23) (work) as a manager. He is in the office now. He (24) (take part) at the meeting with his foreign colleagues. Stephen (25) (stay) in London at present, but he (26) (fly) to Egypt tomorrow to discuss some issues. His flight (27) (leave) at 6 a.m. and although he 98
99 (28) (like) travelling, he (29) (hate) early mornings. 6. Match the tenses with their meaning. 30) Jack works as a manager. 31) He is taking part at the meeting with his foreign colleagues. 32) He is staying in Moscow at present. 33) He is going to Lion on Sunday. 34) His flight leaves tomorrow morning. 35) He likes his job. a) temporary situations, b) schedule actions (timetables), c) future arrangements, d) actions happening now, e) likes and dislikes, f) permanent states. 7. Put the words in the correct order. 36) usually / week / all / work / the / hard / I; 37) coming / delegation / to / is / A / French; 38) prices / to discuss / meet / the / We / week / can / later; 39) the / please / line / Hold; 40) colleague / trip / a / your / business / is going on; 41) Mr Brown / have / with / an / I / appointment. 8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 42) Компания планирует сдать отчет в конце недели. 43) Не могли бы вы мне помочь с этой презентацией? 44) Я надеюсь, что ты хорошо отдохнешь. 45) Мэри обычно опаздывает на работу. 46) Я надеюсь, вы простите меня за беспокойство. 47) Он отвечает за инновации в нашей компании. 48) Я не могу Вам помочь в данный момент. Обратитесь, пожалуйста, к моему коллеге. 99
100 49) Мы собираемся встретиться с деловыми партнерами через неделю. 50) Мы работаем на международную компанию, которая занимается производством торгового оборудования. Total score: 100 LITERATURE (Библиографический список) Основная литература 1. Barrall, I. Intelligent Business : Workbook / I. Barrall, N. Barrall. Edinburgh : Longman, (Pre-Intermediate Business English). P Johnson, C. Intelligent Business: Pre-intermediate. Coursebook. Pearson Education Limited P Lees, G. English on Business: Practical English for International Executives / G. Lees, T. Thorne. Изд-во «Титул», P Дополнительная литература 1. Harrison, M. Oxford Living Grammar: Pre-Intermediate: Lean and Practise Grammar in Context: with answers: [оксфорд. живая грамматика: нач. Курс : учеб. пособие] / M. Harrison. Oxford : Oxford Univ. press, P , Любимцева, С. Н. Деловой английский для начинающих : учеб. / С. Н. Любимцева, Б. М. Тарковская, Л. Г. Памухина. 6-е изд. Москва : ГИС, С Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use: A Self-Study Referens and Practice Book for Intermediate Students with Answers / R. Murphy. 2-nd ed. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press, P , Интернет-ресурсы 1. Cambridge Dictionaries Online [Electronic resource] : the most popular online dictionary and thesaurus for learners of English. Cambridge University Press, Access of code : cambridge.org. Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 2. Study Learn.ru [Электронный ресурс] : все для тех, кому нужен англ. язык. Режим доступа : Москва, Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 100
101 3. Мультитран [Электронный ресурс] : электрон. словарь. Режим доступа : Загл. с экрана. 101
102 UNIT 3. LOOKING FOR A JOB Topic 1. Applying for a Job Reading 1. Study the Word List. look for a job искать работу apply for a job подавать заявление о приеме на работу application form заявление о приеме на работу employ нанимать, предоставлять работу train обучать, готовить(ся), тренировать(ся) go on/do training courses ходить на обучающие курсы earn money зарабатывать деньги prospects перспективы resign уходить в отставку leave a job уходить с работы dismiss/sack smb увольнять кого-либо take over/run a company управлять компанией 102
103 retire уходить на пенсию promote продвигать, повышать в чине / звании be unemployed/out of work быть безработным 2. Complete the table. Use a dictionary to help you. Verb General noun Person employ employment/ unemployment employer/employee resign no retire no train / apply 3. Answer the questions using the words from the Word List. 1. Is it difficult for women to climb up the career ladder? 2. What should a person do to make a success? 3. What features of character should a successful person possess? 4. Read the text and match these headlines to the parts of the text. a) Getting a job-1 b) Hard times c) Leaving the company d) Happier times e) Moving up Paula s Career Ladder 1 1) Getting a job When Paula left school, she applied for (= wrote an official request for) a job in a local company. They gave her a job as a trainee (= a very junior person in a company). She didn t earn much (= didn t get much money/she had a low salary), but they gave her 1 Redman S. English Vocabulary in Use: Pre-intermediate and intermediate. Cambridge University Press, P
104 in-house training (= the company gave her help and advice to become better), and she went on/did several training courses. 2) Paula worked hard and her prospects (= future possibilities in the job) looked good. Her manager/boss (infml) was very pleased with her progress and she soon got a good pay rise (= more money every week/month). After two years she was promoted (= was given a higher position with more money and responsibility). After five years she was in charge of (= the boss of) a department with five employees (= workers) under her (= under her control). 3) By the time Paula was 30, she decided she wanted a fresh challenge (= a new exciting situation) and a career change (= to work in a different kind of job). She wanted to work abroad (= work in another country), so she resigned (= officially told the company she was leaving her job; also quit (infml) and started looking for another job. After a month she got a job with an international company which involved (= included) a lot of foreign travel. She was very excited about this and at first she really enjoyed it, but. 4) After six months, Paula started to dislike the travelling and living in hotels. She didn t do well in the job either. After a year the company dismissed/sacked her (= told her to leave), and Paula found life difficult. She was unemployed/out of work (= without a job) for nine months until she got a part-time job (= working only part of the day or week) in the kitchen of a restaurant. 5) Paula loved the restaurant. She enjoyed learning to cook, and two years later she took over (= took control of) the restaurant. After a year, she opened a second one, and after 20 years she had 10 restaurants. Last year Paula retired (= stopped working completely) at the age of 50, a rich woman Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. After school Paula worked as a trainee in a local company. 2. After five years Paula was in charge of a company. 3. She moved abroad and got an interesting job.
105 4. Paula was tired of travelling. 5. At the end of her career Paula ran a restaurant. 6. Write a synonym for each of these phrases. 1) sack someone =.dismiss.. someone 2) out of work =. 3) leave a company =. 4) be given a better position in a company = be 5) future possibilities in a job =. 6) stop working often at 60 or 65 = 7) take control of a company =.. 7. Complete these sentences with a suitable word. 1. She s not happy in her own country. She wants to work. abroad 2. I don t want a full-time job. I prefer to work. 3. He wants to go on another training. 4. I m bored in my job. I need a fresh 5. At the end of this year we ll get a good pay.. 6. She s got more than a hundred workers under.. 7. I didn t know he was the new manager. When did he take? 8. I know it s not a great job. How much does he? 8a. Complete the text with the words from the box. 1 Position, an interview, covering letter, apply for, a recruitment agency, CV, application When a company needs to recruit or employ, new people, it may deckle to advertise the job or (1) position in the NEED HELP section of a newspaper. People who are interested can then (2) the job by sending in a letter of application or (3) (US cover 1 Агабекян И. П. Указ. соч. С
106 letter) and a curriculum vitae or (4) (in US resume) containing details of their education and experience. A company may also ask candidates to complete an (5) form. The company s Human Resources department will then select the most suitable applications and prepare a shortlist of candidates or applicants, who are invited to attend (6). Another way for a company to hire is by using the services of (7) (in US search firm), which provides a list of suitable candidates. 8b. Work in pairs. Look through the text again and make up a list of steps to apply for a job. e.g. Firstly, we find job vacancies in a newspaper. Grammar Modal verbs: must, have to, should (See Grammar Reference) 9. Complete the responsibilities from a worker s diary, using must or mustn t and the correct verb from the box. Arrive be work write tell smoke take use 1. Employees must arrive in time to the office. 2. Employees late for work. 3. Employees responsibility for their work. 4. Employees from nine to five. 5. Employees at the office. 6. Employees a report every month. 7. Employees bad language. 8. Employees the boss about their mistakes. 10. Complete the lines with words from the box. have to, don t have to, Do you have to, had to, didn t have to, will have to, won t have to, has to 106
107 1. I sometimes had to work at night last month. 2. work at weekends? 3. You agree with him. Please, follow my advice. 4. She check the documents. 5. I look for a job. 6. They come here next week. 7. He change the job. He was promoted. 8. No, you call him tomorrow. 11. Complete this conversation, in which Jane asks Nick about his job, using mustn t or the correct form of have to and the words in brackets 1. J: What (1) do you have to do (you/do) in your job exactly? N: (2) (I/tell) you too much about it. A lot of my work is secret. J: Really? Well, (3) (you/tell) me anything if you don t want to. N: Well, I can tell you that I do research work for various companies about games products. J: (4) (you/play) a lot of games? N: I can, but (5) (I/do) that. J: (6) (you/go) to other countries to do your research? N: Sometimes. I ve just been on a trip but (7) (I/go) abroad again until next year. J: (8) (you/get) any particular qualifications before you got that job? N: No, (9) (I/do) a course experience was more important. J: So, are there any exciting new games coming out soon? N: Yes, there is one that s going to be really popular. (10) (You/repeat) this to anyone, but it s called Weird. (11) (I/say) any more. Only a few people know about this game. J: Don t worry. I won t say a word. 1 Harrison M. Op. cit. P
108 12. Complete the sentences with should. For some gaps you will need to form negatives. When you are applying for a job, 1. You should look through a lot of advertisements. 2. You send CV and a cover letter. 3. You prepare to the interview then. 4. You ignore the advice of your parents and friends. 5. You be late for an interview. 6. You do the best at the interview. 7. You criticize your previous job. 13. Read the problems and give advice, using should. 1. I can t find your address. You should put it down in your notebook. 2. I ve got exams next week, and I m really nervous. 3. I like my job, but I don t like the people I work with. 4. My computer s behaving very strangely. 5. I argue a lot with my colleagues. Past Simple (See Grammar Reference) 14. Make these sentences negative. 1. I went to university. I didn t go to university. 2. He worked for the United Nations. 3. I was on holiday last week. 4. We lived in New Jersey. 5. She left the company. 6. They were in the office on Tuesday. 15a. Match the questions with the answers. 108
109 1) What did you do last evening? 2) When did you send your first ? 3) Where were you on ? 4) How many countries did you visit last year? 5) When were you born? 6) How did you come to this English class? a) I was born on b) I celebrated New Year with my family. c) I think I sent it in d) I came by bus. e) I visited two. f) I worked at the office until 9 p.m. and then I went home. 15b. Work in pairs. Ask the questions from the table above and answer with your own information. Listening 16a. Listen to Steven talking about his job. What do you think his job is? Would you like his job? Why/Why not? ( 11) 16b. Complete the sentences from the interview with words from the box. Then change the sentences using he instead of I. don t have to, have to, had to, Do you have to, didn t have to 1. I work very long hours. 2. work at the weekend? 3. I do the washing-up. 4. We learn the basics. 5. I wait too long to get a job. 17a. Use these phrases to make past simple questions. Then listen to the interview and put the questions in the correct order. ( 12) 1) leave your last job? 2) go to school? 3) grow up? 4) be your first job? 5) be born? 6) join your present company? 109
110 Work experience Why did you leave your last job? When? What? Personal history Where? 1_ Where? Where? 17b. Listen to the interview again. Are these sentences true (T) or false (F)? 1. He wasn t born in New York T 2. He didn t grow up in Manhattan 3. He didn t go to Harvard 4. He didn t get a job as a consultant 5. He didn t join his present company in He didn t like the long hours at McKinsey Speaking 18. Work in small groups. What do you think? 1. What activities does looking for a job involve? 2. What does the Human Resources department do? 3. Is it easy for young people to find jobs nowadays? 4. Do you use an online job-search site to look for a job? 5. What do applicants usually write to get a job? 19a. Match the words to construct the sentences. I ll have to I won t have to I have to I don t have to work accurately work irregular hours work under pressure speak English well type fast at work 110
111 My friend has to My friend doesn t have to give presentations drive well work on computer do a lot of paperwork 19b. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions about the work, using the information from the table above. 1. Will you have to speak English well? Yes, I will. 2. Do you have to? 3. What will you have to do? 4. What do you have to do? 5. What does your friend have to do? Writing 20. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Пять лет назад мой друг подал заявление о приеме на работу в местную компанию. 2. Он не много зарабатывал первые два года. 3. Он усердно работал и ходил на обучающие курсы. 4. Вскоре он ушел из компании. 5. Полгода он был безработным, прежде чем начал свое собственное дело. 6. Последние два года он управляет успешной компанией. 21. Write a short composition A Successful Career, describing business of a famous person. Use Past tenses and modal verbs in your sentences. 111
112 Topic 2. CV and Cover Letter 112 Reading 1. Study the Word List. Human Resources department отдел по работе с кадрами curriculum vitae (CV) автобиография resume краткие биографические данные recruitment agency (амер. search firm) агентство по трудоустройству letter of application (cover letter) сопроводительное письмо (к заявлению о приеме на работу) job description / person specifications описание работы / требования к работе skills умения personal qualities личные качества circumstances обстоятельства, условия qualifications квалификации profile краткий биографический очерк; сведения из биографии work experience опыт работы be suitable for the job подходить для этой работы provide information предоставлять информацию special aptitudes for smth особые способности к чему-либо
113 2. Consult the dictionary and read the words. Mind the stress in the underlined parts. Human Resources department, curriculum vitae, resume, recruitment agency, application, description, specifications, personal qualities, circumstances, qualifications, profile, experience, suitable, aptitudes. 3. Answer the questions. 1. What is a CV (resume)? 2. What is a cover letter? 3. What are the applicants' skills and qualities that are often sought by employers? 4. Have you ever written a CV or a cover letter? Share your experience. 4. Read two texts about writing a CV and a cover letter. Then do the tasks after them 1. The CV (Curriculum Vitae lit. record of life) is presenting your qualifications, skills and attributes to the employer. CV demonstrates the suitability of an applicant for the job. As well as providing an insight into previous qualifications and experience, it should show the employer the skills and qualities the applicant has, that will match the position being applied for. In compiling CV the applicant has one objective only to get an interview in order to get the job. A CV must be accurate, interesting and up-to-date. It must be presentable so that it makes the best impression possible and gets noticed. It should be relevant targeted to the needs of each particular position The letter of application, sometimes called cover letter, can be as important as the CV because it is the first direct contact between a candidate and an employer. If this letter is not well written and 1 Агабекян И. П. Указ. соч. С
114 presented, it will make a poor impression. The letter of application normally contains four parts in which you should: 1) confirm that you wish to apply and say where you learned about the job; 2) say why you are interested in the position and your interests are the same as those of the company; 3) show that you can contribute to the job by describing your most relevant skills and experience; 4) indicate your willingness to attend an interview (and possibly say when you would be free to attend). Before making an application you should analyse the job description (the information provided by the employer to establish the skills and qualities they particularly require). Job descriptions can be limited to outlines of the work-related tasks rather than the personal qualities needed. However, it is common now for employers to produce job descriptions or person specifications which detail the personal requirements. They may distinguish between the attributes essential for the job and those that are desirable. Person specifications will usually include: qualifications, skills, special aptitudes (e.g. IT), interests, personal qualities, circumstances (e.g. availability to travel) Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. The CV also presents your qualifications to the employer. 2. Any CV must be accurate, interesting and up-to-date. 3. The CV is sometimes called a cover letter. 4. The letter of application normally contains two parts. 5. Job description is the information provided by the employees to establish their skills and qualities. 6. Match the sections of a CV (1 4) with their explanations (a i). 1) Education, 2) Qualifications, 3) Work experience, 4) Profile a) Name, address and telephone number, b) Date and place of birth, c) Nationality,
115 d) Married or single (give the ages of any children), e) Dates and places of education, f) Examinations passed, especially if internationally recognized, g) Knowledge of English and of other languages, h) Previous employment. 7. Look at Anna Rezel s CV. Match the headings from the box with the appropriate lines of the document 1. Qualifications Job description Education Interests Work experience Curriculum Vitae Anna Rezel Via Spartaco 39, Milan, Italy ) A marketing specialist with experience in the advertising industry, Anna speaks excellent English and Italian. She is looking for a job with an international media company in the UK. 2) 2001 to present Marketing manager, Cssanti & Cassanti advertising agency, Milan, Italy Marketing assistant, Avanti & Driver advertising agency, London, UK 3) Leeds City University Atherton Bridge School for Girls 4) BA (Hons) Italian literature with business studies A levels Economics, History, Italian 1 Evans D. Powerbase. Elementary. Pearson Education Limited, P
116 5) Going to the cinema, playing tennis and reading novels 8. Look at Tammy Vo s resume. Find words or phrases with similar meanings to the words in the table. 1 1) curriculum vitae 2) specialist 3) looking for 4) job 5) work experience RESUME Tammy Vo 1376bViolet Parkway Tucker Grove, CA (917) An electrical engineer with experience of management, Tammy Vo is an expert in 3G systems for mobile telecommunications networks. She is now seeking a position as an engineer in a large telecom company in Malaysia or Singapore. Employment history 2002 to present Staff Engineers, Oliphant Industries, Palo Alto, California Night manager, Cicadian Supermarket, Columbus, Ohio Education Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering, University of Ohio (2000) Evans D. Op. cit. P. 67.
117 9a. Read the advertisement for a job and answer the questions: What is the job? Where is it? THE OXFORD INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL Wants a receptionist Do you like working with people? Can you speak two foreign languages? Can you use a computer? Do you know Oxford well? Please write to: Anne Watson, Director The Oxford International School 16 College Street, Oxford OX2 7PT Or 9b. Carol is interested in the job. Read the information about her. Do you think she is the right person for the job in the advertisement above? Name Carol Barnes Age 28 Address 4 Hope Road, Oxford OX6 5PP Present job Tourist guide Last job Hotel receptionist Languages French, Spanish 9c. Look at Carol s cover letter and complete it with the information from the chart and the advertisement. Anne Watson, Director The Oxford International School 16 College (2) Oxford OX2 7PT 4 Hope (1) Oxford OX6 5PP 117
118 19 August Dear Ms Watson, I am interested in the job of (3) in your school. I m (4) years old and I (5) in Oxford. At the moment I m a (6) guide, but last year I worked as a (7). I like working with people very much and I can speak two (8), French and a little Spanish. I can also use a computer. I was born in (9), so I know it very well. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Carol Barnes Grammar Past Simple and Past Continuous (See Grammar Reference) 10. Complete this description using the past simple forms of the verbs in brackets 1. My name is Gurnam and my family originally (1) came (come) from India. My grandparents (2) (move) to Britain in 1975 and they went to live in the city of Leicester. My grandfather (3) (open) a restaurant there and he (4) (become) very successful. He (5) (not speak) much English when he (6) (arrive) in Britain but he (7) (learn) very quickly. Lots of people (8) (eat) at his restaurant. He (9) (work) very hard for many years and he (10) (make) plenty of money. My father (11) (be) born in Leicester and he (12) (go) to school there. He (13) (do) very well at school and (14) (pass) all his exams. Then he (15) (study) at university for three years and (16) (get) a Business degree. After that, he (17) (set) up his own business. At first he (18) (sell) clothes in a shop near the city centre, and after a few years he (19) (own) five shops all over the city. When I was a small child, we (20) (live) in a small house but my father (21) (buy) a bigger one two years ago Harrison M. Op. cit. P. 10.
119 11. Complete this description of situations five years ago, using the past continuous and the verbs in brackets. Use short forms for negatives 1. Five years ago, I (1) was living (live) in a different city. I (2) (study) for my final school exams and I (3) try to decide what to do after school. I (4) (do) homework every evening and I (5) (not go) out much. My friends (6) (have) more fun than me. They (7) (go) to clubs and they (8) (enjoy) themselves while I (9) (sit) at home. But I m glad now that I (10) (not do) that, because I passed my exams and now I ve got a good job. Five years ago, my father (11) (work) very hard. He (12) (get) up early every morning and he (13) (come) home quite late at night. He (14) (feel) under pressure and he (15) (not enjoy) life. He is retired now and he is much happier because he has a lot more free time. Five years ago, my sister (16) (go) out with a local boy. They (17) (save) money to get married and they (18) (plan) their wedding. She (19) (serve) in a shop and he (20) (live) with his parents. Now they re married and they ve got three children. 12. Complete these sentences about someone s day at work, using the Past Simple or the Past Continuous forms of the verbs in brackets While I was travelling (travel) to work, I got (get) stuck in traffic jam. 2. When I (arrive) at work, my boss (speak) to someone on the phone. 3. At 11 a. m., I (do) some work when the boss (ask) to see me. 4. While I (talk) to my boss, his phone (ring) several times. 1 Harrison M. Op. cit. P Ibid. P
120 5. When I (come) out of the boss s office, people (not work), they (look) at me. 6. At 1 o clock, I (stop) work and I (go) for lunch. 7. While I (eat) my lunch, a colleague (come) to my table. 8. While we (sit) together, he (ask) me a question. 9. He asked me: What (the boss/talk) about while you (sit) in his office? 10. I said: When I (go) into his office, I (feel) nervous, but he (smile). 11. While we (talk), he (offer) me a much better job. 13. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Где вы раньше работали? 2. Вы проходили курсы повышения квалификации за последние пять лет? 3. Какие дополнительные квалификации вы получили? 4. Почему вы уволились с работы? 5. Чем вы занимались на своей предыдущей (previous) работе? 6. У вас есть способности к иностранным языкам? 7. Какое образование вы получили? 8. Какой университет вы закончили? 9. Где вы прочитали объявление о приеме на работу? 10. Кто посоветовал вам прийти к нам? 120 Listening 14a. Fill in the text about a woman s education and career with the words from the box. Then listen to the first part and check. ( 13) school course university subjects studied reseach At school I was very interested in math and physics. They were my favourite. So, when I went to, I electrical
121 engineering. At the end of the I stayed at university for another year and did some into systems management. 14b. Put these events in the right order. Then listen to the second part and check your answers. ( 14) I had an interview I heard about a great opportunity I sent a resume and a letter I joined the company They offered me a job I left university 1 Speaking 15. Work in pairs. Use the following adjectives to describe your skills. accurate active broad-minded competent creative diplomatic efficient energetic enthusiastic experienced honest innovative objective outgoing practical e.g. I m rather accurate, but not very active. 16. Your friend wants to get a job this summer and asks you for advice. Read this list of job advertisements. Then discuss the points in the box with your friend. Ask your friend what experience he or she has. Ask what kinds of work he or she plans to do next summer. Make suggestions about which job or jobs advertised below suites to your friend. City guide Tourist office looking to employ guides during the summer. Official city tours last two hours and are in English. History knowledge essential. 121
122 Shop assistant Busy store in shopping centre requires summer shop assistants. Friendly manner, smart appearance, interest in fashion, reasonable English. Waiter Busy city centre bistro wishes to employ seasonal waiting staff. Good communication skills a must. Flexible hours, to include some weekends and evenings. Hotel receptionist Excellent opportunity for the right person to begin a career in hotel industry. The hotel near airport requires reception assistant during summer. Writing 17. Write your own CV. Look at the CVs in ex. 7, 8 as an example. 18a. Study the structure of a cover letter. 1. At the left-top corner: the name and address of the person you are writing to. 2. At the right-top corner: your address. 3. The date. 4. Addressing: use Ms, Miss, or Mrs for a woman, and Mr for a man. 5. Paragraph 1. Introduction. 6. Paragraph 2. The main part of the letter. 7. Paragraph 3. Ending. 8. Ending: end formal letters with Yours sincerely and your name. 18b. Read the advertisement for a job and write your cover letter. Follow the structure in ex. 19a. 122
123 Happy Holidays want TOURIST GUIDES Are you over 18? Do you like talking to people? Do you know your town well? Can you speak English? Are you free from July to September? Please write to: Peter Mann, Happy Holidays, Central Office, 89 Brook Street, LONDON W1 5PW Topic 3. Interview Reading 1. Study the Word List. recruit вербовать, набирать (служащих, членов организации) applicant/candidate желающий получить должность, кандидат 123
124 interview an applicant проводить собеседование с претендентом на должность attend an interview приходить на собеседование ask an applicant questions about smth задавать кандидату вопросы о чем-либо demonstrate abilities and personality демонстрировать способности и личностные особенности work background информация о предыдущей работе work habits and skills навыки и умения в работе shortlist включать в окончательный список verify the obtained information проверять полученную информацию assess/evaluate the applicant оценивать кандидатуру suit for a job соответствовать требованиям работы offer a job предлагать работу 2. Complete the table. Use a dictionary to help you. Verb General noun Person interview interview interviewer/ interviewee evaluate recruitment qualification attendant / attendee 3. Match the words (1 5) with their definitions (a e). 1) apply a) a short history of your education and where you have worked so far 2) experience b) training or exams needed for a job 3) curriculum vitae (CV) (BrE)/resume (AmE) с) knowledge you get from doing a job for a long time 4) qualifications d) ask questions to find out if someone is right for a job 5) interview e) ask for a job in writing 124
125 4. Answer the questions. 1. What is the purpose of a job interview? 2. What candidates are invited for this interview? 3. What does the interviewer usually ask the candidate about? 4. What should a person do to prepare for the interview? 5. Read the texts paying attention to the words in bold and do the task after it. Hiring New Employees 1 Interviews are a central part of the recruitment process for most organizations. Usually applicants are interviewed after sending in an application form or CV for a particular position. The purpose of an interview is to give the selector a chance to assess the applicant, and for the applicant to demonstrate abilities and personality. It is also an opportunity for the applicants to make sure that the organization and the position are what they want. The recruitment process for most organizations is standard applications are received, either via an online application form, or a postal form or CV. Candidates are shortlisted and invited for interview. The interview format and number of interviews can vary considerably. Some companies are satisfied after just one interview whereas others make a further shortlist of candidates for one or more interviews. If the applicants are successful at the interview stage then they will receive an official letter offering them the job. Interviewing Job Applicants The objective of the job interview is to find out as much information as possible about the applicant's work background, especially work habits and skills. The major task is to get the applicants to talk about themselves and about their work habits. The best way to do this is to ask each applicant specific questions: What did you do on your last job? How did you do it? Why was it done? The applicants' replies are evaluated and when the interview is over, the applicant is asked to check back later, if that applicant suits 1 Агабекян И. П. Указ. соч. С
126 for a job. The decision is not made until all the applicants have been interviewed. Next, the obtained information is verified. To help insure a prompt reply, previous employers should be asked a few specific questions about the applicant which can be answered by a yes or no, or with a very short answer. For example: How long did the employee work for you? Was his or her work poor, average, or excellent? Why did the employee leave your employment? After the information on all applicants is verified, the selection can be made. The result of this selection is the Right employee. The right employee can help make money. The wrong employee will cost much wasted time, materials, and may even drive away customers. 6. Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. Interviews are a central part of the recruitment process. 2. The recruitment process for most organizations is not standard. 3. To be interviewed applicants may not send an application form or a CV. 4. The interview format and number of interviews can vary considerably. 5. The major task of the interview is to make the applicants to talk about their habits. 6. When the interview is over, the applicant is told if he/she suits for a job or not. 7. Previous employers should be asked a few specific questions about the applicant. 7. Underline the two words or phrases in each group that can go with the verbs in bold. a b c 1) recruit staff employees information 2) earn a living a trainee a salary 3) send a resume a CV a placement 4) interview a department a candidate an applicant 126
127 8. Fill in the text with the words from the box. job, confident, interview (2), selection, seek, skills, employer, train, promotion If you (1) manage to get an interview do not waste the opportunity. The (2) is now seriously interested in the picture you have given of your (3) and qualifications. The (4) is an opportunity to look more searchingly at that picture and to make a thorough test of your suitability for the (5) in relation to others who are being (6). Large organisations often use particular (7) techniques to supplement their interviewing procedures such as intelligence test, etc. Personnel officers are usually (8) to assess your response to their questions. When answering questions be sure to mention any (9) you had. Be natural and honest. You may not have the abilities and skills the employer (10) but each interview can help build your experience so that you become more (11) and knowledgeable. Grammar Present Perfect (See Grammar Reference) 9. Complete this conversation between Jack and Tom about a friend of theirs, using the Present Perfect 1. J: (1) Have you heard (you/hear) about Marlon? T: No, he (2) (not contact) me recently. What (3) (he/do)? J: He (4) (decide) to leave the country. He (5) (find) a job in Australia. T: I m very surprised about that. He (6) (not say) anything to me. J: No, it s a secret. He (7) (tell) his family, so they don t know. T: Wow. (8) (he/plan) everything in secret? 1 Harrison M. Op. cit. P
128 J: Yes, he (9) (give) up his job, (10) (sell) his car and (11) (buy) his plane ticket. T: I don t know what to say. I m amazed. 10. Write the sentences about a friend, using the Present Perfect and for or since Steve/be/a friend of mine/many years. Steve has been a friend of mine for many years. 2. I/know/him/ Steve/work/for the same company/five years. 4. I/not see/steve/a couple of months. 5. Steve/not phone/me/march. 6. We/not play/tennis together/a long time. 7. Steve/be/very busy/several months. 8. Steve/not have/a holiday/last year. 11. Put for, since, in or ago into each gap. 1. I was born I went to university three years. 3. I passed my driving test fifteen years. 4. I ve had a car I met my wife We ve been married five years. 7. Our first daughter was born 3 years. 8. We ve lived in the same house a. Match the beginnings in A with the endings in B to make a story of Nancy Mann s life in Present Perfect or Past Simple. A 1. She was born 2. She went to boarding school in England 3. She studied French B a) for the last five years b) three times c) from 1970 to 1977 d) at various times in her life Harrison M. Op. cit. P. 21.
129 4. She hasn t spoken Spanish 5. She s worked in both eastern and western Europe 6. She worked in Brussels 7. She s worked for the BBC 8. She hasn t worked abroad 9. She married for the first time 10. She s been married 11. She married for the third time e) when she was twenty-one f) when she was at University g) in Argentina in 1959 h) for two years, from 1989 to 1991 i) last year j) since her son was born four years ago k) since she was in Buenos Aires three years ago 12b. Work in pairs. Write similar tables of your own life. Ask your partner to match the events and the times to tell the story of your life. Correct any wrong time expresions. Present Perfect Continuous (See Grammar Reference) 13. Put the verb into the correct form: Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous. 1. I have lost (lost) my key. Can you help me look for it? 2. You look tired. Have you been working (you/work) hard? 3. Look! Somebody (break) that window. 4. I (read) the book you gave me but I (not/finish) it yet. 5. Sorry, I m late. That s all right. I (not/wait) long. 6. Hello! I (type) the report. I (already/type) two pages. 7. How many pages of that book (you/read)? 8. Jim (play) tennis since 2 o clock. 9. Tom s hands are very dirty. He (repair) the car. 10. He (speak) for two hours. Past Perfect (See Grammar Reference) 14. Write the two sentences as one. Use when and Past Perfect in one part of the sentence and Past Simple in another. 1. I took the book back to the library. I read it. I took the book back to the library when I had read it. 129
130 2. The students did the experiment. They wrote a report on it. 3. Nick saved enough money. He bought a motorbike. 4. Mark put all the books away. He look them through. 5. Tom applied for another job. He left his previous job. 15. Put the verbs into the correct form: Past Perfect or Past Simple. 1. Was Kevin there when you arrive? No, he had gone (go) home. 2. I was very pleased to see Ann again after such a long time. I (not see) her for five years. 3. I felt very tired when I got home, so I (go) to bed. 4. Ann wasn t in when I phoned her. She (be) in London. 5. I didn t recognize Mrs. Johnson. She (change) a lot. Listening 16a. Nancy Mann has applied for the job and is being interviewed. Listen to the interview. Do you think she will get the job? ( 15) 16b. Read the first part of Nancy s interview. Put do, did, or have into each gap. Then listen to the first part again and check your answers. I: Who you work for at the moment, Ms Mann? N: I work for the BBC World Service. I: And how long you worked for BBC? N: I been with the BBC for five years. Yes, exactly five years. I: And how long you been their German correspondent? N: For two years. I: And what you do before the BBC? N: I worked as an interpreter for the EU. 130
131 16c. Read and complete the second part of Nancy s interview with did, was, or have. Then listen and check your answers. I: As you know, this job is based in Geneva. you ever lived abroad before? N: Oh yes, yes I. I: And when you live abroad? N: Well, in fact I born in Argentina and I lived there until I was eleven. Also, I lived and worked in Brussels for two years when I working for the EU. I: That s interesting. you travelled much? N: Oh yes, yes indeed. I travelled all over western and eastern Europe, and I also been to many parts of South America. I: And why you go to these places? N: Well, mostly for pleasure, but three years ago I went back to Argentina to cover various political stories in Buenos Aries for the BBC. Speaking 17a. Read the interview and do the task after it. A: How are you today? B: I m fine, thank you. And you? A: Me too. Isn t this great weather we re having? B: Yes? It s wonderful. I love this time of year. A: Tell me about yourself. B: I was born and raised in Penza. I attended Penza State University and received my master s degree in Public Administration. I have no working experience. I enjoy playing tennis in my free time and learning languages. A: What type of position are you looking for? B: I m interested in an entry level (beginning) position. A: Are you interested in a full-time or part-time position? B: I am more interested in a full-time position. However, I would also consider a part-time position. 131
132 A: What is your greatest strength? B: I work well under pressure. When there is a deadline (a time by which the work must be finished), I can focus on the task at hand (current project) and structure my work schedule well. A: What is your greatest weakness? B: I am overzealous (work too hard) and become nervous when my co0workers are not pulling their weight (doing their job). However, I am aware of this problem, and before I say anything to anyone? I ask myself why the colleague is having difficulties. A: Why do you want to work as a public administrator? B: I d like to be useful for my town. A: When can you begin? B: Immediately. 17b. Write your own answers to the phrases in bold and play out the dialogue with your partner. Then turn the roles. 18. Have you got a job in a company? If so, answer these questions and ask another person the same questions. 1. Are you responsible for anything or anyone? 2. Have you had much training from the company? 3. Have you been on any training courses? 4. Have you been promoted from the time you started your job? 5. Do you normally get a good pay rise at the end of each year? 6. What do you think about your future prospects in the company? Writing 19. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Расскажите мне в нескольких словах о себе. 2. На какую должность вы претендуете? 3. Почему вы считаете, что лучше остальных кандидатов подходите (fit) на эту должность? 4. Вы считаете себя ответственным человеком? 132
133 5. Каковы ваши слабые стороны? 6. Каковы ваши сильные стороны? 7. Расскажите мне о вашем опыте работы. 8. Какие три ключевых личностных качества необходимы для данной работы? 20. Write 10 recommendations for an applicant to pass through the interview successfully. Texts for Reading and Discussion 1. Discuss in a group. Text A 1. What are odd jobs? 2. What odd jobs do you know? 3. Why do people find them strange? 2. Match the headings (1 9) with the explanations (a i). 1. Musical Chairs a) Someone who makes everyone like them 2. Sticky Situation b) Aggressive people 3. A Real Charmer с) То have too many options 4. Workaholics d) A party game involving music and chairs 5. Spoilt for Choice e) People who work too much 6. Desperate Measures f) Experts in specific jobs 7. Pushy People g) A difficult situation 8. Calming Influences h) Do something extreme 9. Specialists i) Someone or something that calms you down 3. Read the text and match the headings above (1 9) with the paragraphs in the text (A H). There is one extra topic. 133
134 134 Odd Jobs 1 A. How many jobs can you think of? Twenty? Thirty? No doubt the list includes doctor, lawyer, teacher, mechanic, plumber, and so on. The most dedicated career adviser could perhaps name a hundred. But there are over 500,000 jobs in existence to choose from! So, if you want to do well, how can you decide the best way to make a living? This week, Paul Hamilton takes a light-hearted look at some very ODD JOBS! B. King Alfonso XIII of Spain was going deaf so he employed an 'Anthem Man. His only job was to give a signal to the king when the national anthem was being played so that he would know when to stand up and when to sit down! C If you cannot find a tuneless monarch to be your employer, the railways offer jobs of all sorts. In Japan, 'Passenger Pushers' are employed full time by the railway companies in Tokyo. During the rush hour, when hundreds of people are trying to get on the metro, they do their best to squeeze everyone into trains so that the doors will close properly. D. Another technological advance that led to job creation on the railways was the invention of chewing gum in When they finished their gum, many passengers just dropped it on the floor of the station and management at New York's Grand Central Station had to do something about it. In the end, they employed a professional gum remover who had a lot of work to do he collected, on average, over three kilos of the sticky menace per day. I suppose you could say he got attached to his job! E. Escalators have provided inspiration for other rewarding careers. When the first moving staircase was installed at Harrods Department Store in London in 1898, it made many people scared. Shop assistants were put at the top of the escalator with instructions to give brandy and smelling salts to customers! And in 1911, when Earls Court underground station installed its first escalators, many people were worried about their safety. London Transport had a great idea; they employed a man with a wooden leg. His job was to walk up and down the escalators all day to show passengers how safe they were. 1 Harris M., Mower D., Sikorzynska A. et al. New Opportunities. Intermediate : Student s Book / Pearson ; Longman, P
135 F. In 1982, dozens of neighbours in a village in Berkshire made complaints about the smell from the nearby sewage works. So twelve people were employed to sniff the air outside their homes to estimate the smell. The Amsterdam police have a similarly specialised task force called the 'grachtenvissers'. Their sole duty is to help motorists whose cars have got stuck in canals! This trend towards specialisation has grown dramatically in the last few years but it is not an entirely recent phenomenon. In medieval Japanese armies, special soldiers did the gruesome job of counting up the number of decapitated heads after each battle! G. In America, Miss Edith King was given an unusual job in the army. She was employed by the US War Department in 1905 with the task of finding soldiers who had run away from the army. She collected $50 for each deserter. Her only weapon was flirtation. If the runaway soldiers thought they were going to have a good time, they were making a big mistake she led over five hundred into court. She must have had real charm! H. Being unemployed often makes people think of unique ways to make money. Take Jim Parker from Sacramento. Last year he got the sack from his job in a high-tech company and has found it impossible to get full-time work. In desperation, he became self-employed and is now trying hard to sell advertising space. If the price is right, he intends to tattoo an advert on his forehead! He has already turned down an offer of $75, Read the text again and answer these questions. 1. Why are 'Passenger Pushers' necessary on the metro in Japan? 2. Why does the writer describe chewing gum as a 'menace? 3. Why did Harrods employ special shop assistants on the escalator? 4. Why were sewage works a problem in Berkshire? 5. Why was Miss King successful? 5. 'Odd jobs' mean both strange jobs and small jobs (e.g. washing someone's car). Have you ever done any odd jobs? Tell the class. e.g. I ve done baby-sitting a few times. I got paid. 135
136 6. Match the words from the box with do or make. Then make up sentences with them. well, a living, your best, something about it, work somebody, scared, a complaint, a job, a (big) mistake, people think, money do 1) well make 1a) living 2) 2) 3) 3) 4) 4) 5) 5) 6) Text B 1. Match the words with their definitions. 1) ad 2) filter 3) headhunting a) software that selects the job-seeker's details to match the employer's requirements b) advertisement c) persuading someone to leave their job and go to work for another company in a similar position 2. Read the article and find information about the following. 1) the Monster.com name; 2) the image of Monster.com; 3) Monster.com's biggest contribution to the recruitment industry; 4) headhunting firms. 136
137 The Online Job Market 1 How Jeff Taylor changed the way the labour market works Monster.com, the world 's biggest online job-search site, shows how electronic marketplaces reach more people and can offer more efficiency than physical markets. It also shows that money can be made in such markets: Monster has a long record of profitability. Jeff Taylor, who launched the site in 1994, says that the Monster.com name is the firm's single most important success factor. It introduces an image of youthful fun in what is basically a boring business. Supporting the brand is a big advertising budget which accounts for a quarter of the firm's costs. He runs expensive ads during key sporting events such as the Super Bowl. Job-seekers supply resumes and employers pay to scan them or to post job ads. Most of the services that job-seekers get are free, but they have to pay for a service that allows them to contact each other for advice and career management. They can use this service to ask each other questions about, say, what it is like to work for a firm that they are thinking of joining. The main contribution of Monster has been to speed up hiring and vastly increase the accuracy of the job-search process. You can post a job at 2pm and get your first response at 2:01, Mr. Taylor says proudly. And an employer who knows exactly what he wants can use Monster's filters to search vast numbers of resumes with precise accuracy. Monster is a serious threat to newspapers, which historically made 40 % of their revenues from carrying ads, up to half of which were for staff. Headhunting firms have also lost business, because demand for their help in filling lower-level jobs has fallen. The online job market works well for workers and employers who know what they want. It works badly for people who are unsure. Check that your resume says clearly what kind of job you want. The filters will then make sure that it reaches the right human resource departments. 1 Johnson C. Intelligent Business : Coursebook. Edinburgh : Longman, P
138 3. Read the text again and answer the questions. 1. Does Monster.com make a profit? 2. What two advantages does Monster.com offer to job-seekers? 3. Find two advantages for employers of using the Monster.com site. 4. Which two kinds of business are losing money because of Monster.com's success? 5. What advice does the article give to people who want to use the site to find a job? 4. Discuss in a group. Would you use an online job-search site like Monster to look for a job? Why? / Why not? Stop and Check 3 Do the tasks below. There are two points for each correct answer. 1. Complete this table of words. 138 Verb Noun Person (1) employment (2) / (3) advertisement advertiser apply (4) applicant communicate (5) communicator 2. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. abroad part-time earn him course 6) I don't want a full-time job. I'd prefer to work. 7) He's got more than a hundred workers under. 8) I am not happy in my own country. I want to work. 9) Why did she go on the? Because she needed more training. 10) I know it's not a great job. How much does she.
139 3. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word from the brackets. 11) When I (went/was going) across the street I met my colleagues. 12) You (shouldn t / mustn t) be late for the interview. 13) David and Tom (talked/were talking) together when a young woman approached them. 14) You (shouldn t / mustn t) smoke here! 15) Three years ago I (has gone/went) to Argentina. 16) You (have to/should) get more exercise. Why don t you play tennis? 17) I (learned / have learned) English for 10 years. 18) Last year he (has worked / worked) for BBC. 19) They (were / have been) on several training courses for this year. 20) I (have gone / went) to university in ) You (have been working/were working) for a long time. You should have a rest! 22) I (sent/have sent) my by 5 p.m. 23) You (are typing/have been typing) your report since early morning. Let s make a break and have dinner. 24) While I (talked/was talking) to you I missed two buses. 25) She (applied/had applied) for a job when I met her. 4. Tick the correct sentence that means the same as a given idea. 26) I m telling myself that it s important. A: I must do my homework tonight. B: I have to do my homework tonight. 27) Another boring business trip! A: We must go to Paris some time. B: We will have to go to Paris next week. 28) It s the rule. A: I must wear a white shirt and a dark skirt. B: Men have to wear a shirt and tie in offices. 29) One student is talking to another. A: You must register for next term before Thursday. B: You will have to register for next term before Thursday. 139
140 140 30) I m really thirsty. A: I must have a drink of water. B: I have to drink lots of water. 5. Put the words in the correct order. 31) The HR / select / department / the candidates. 32) did / How many / visit / countries / you / last year? 33) did / What / you / your last job / do on? 34) courses / Have / been / you / on any training? 35) was / She /in charge /a department/ of. 36) applied / He / for/ in / a job / a local company. 6. Read the text and tick the four pieces of advice of A-E below that are mentioned. 37) A You can find information about jobs in newspapers and on the Internet. 38) В If you don't find a permanent job immediately, try to find a temporary job for a short time. 39) С When you send in your CV, don't write about all your qualifications there, leave this to the interview. 40) D Ask questions about the working conditions, but try to avoid bringing up the question of money yourself. 41) E If you dress elegantly, you'll have a better chance of succeeding at the interview. Get it right! Katy Smith, career consultant, has a few tricks up her sleeve for those looking for a job. Go on and get it right! Read recruitment sections in newspapers and on the Internet. A good permanent job with a promise of long-term employment can be difficult to find, so why not take a temporary job, even if it is only for a few months? Every day in most local newspapers there are attractive advertisements for both full-time and part-time jobs, so don't miss them! When you've decided to apply for a job, send your application with a CV as soon as possible. Don't forget to list all your
141 qualifications (degrees and diplomas) and any previous experience you have with this kind of work. At the interview don't be afraid to ask about working conditions (e.g. hours or holidays) but wait for the interviewer to mention the question of starting salary. Money is a delicate issue and being greedy will not get you a job. Dress for success! Put on smart clothes and wear something bright to boost your confidence at the interview. 7. Put the paragraphs (a d) of the letter in the right order. 12 Rue Chantily Paris de France 15th August 2010 Mr. J. K. Green Personnel Manager Thrush Books Ltd 15 Rowans Road Boundley Wessex UV20 8DT Dear Mr. Green, a) I am 20 years old, and have just completed a year's intensive study of English at the Language Academy at Rouen. My father is French and my mother is Austrian, so I am bilingual in French and German. b) I hope this is the information you need and I am the kind of person you are looking for. If so I would be grateful for more details about the job and an application form. I look forward to hearing from you. c) I am writing in reply to your advertisement in the Daily News for a secretary in the Foreign Department. d) I have also completed a course for English secretaries at the Mountain Secretarial College; my typing speed in English is 50 wpm, I am used to audio typing in English and I can use a word processor. Yours sincerely, Martha Lachasse 141
142 42) Paragraph 1 43) Paragraph 2 44) Paragraph 3 45) Paragraph 4 8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 46) Она ищет сейчас новую работу. 47) Последний раз я работал дизайнером в одной из местных компаний. 48) Проверьте, правильно ли вы заполнили свое заявление. 49) Где вы раньше работали? 50) Вы когда-нибудь писали автобиографию? Total score: 100 LITERATURE (Библиографический список) Основная литература 1. Barrall, I. Intelligent Business : Workbook / I. Barrall, N. Barrall. Edinburgh : Longman, P Johnson, C. Intelligent Business : Coursebook / C. Johnson. Edinburgh : Longman, P Качалова, К. Н. Практическая грамматика английского языка с упражнениями и ключами / К. Н. Качалова, Е. Е. Израилевич. Москва : ЮНВЕС : Лист, С , , , Дополнительная литература 1. Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use: A Self-Study Referens and Practice Book for Intermediate Students with Answers / R. Murphy. 2-nd ed. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press, P , Harrison, M. Oxford Living Grammar: Pre-Intermediate: Lean and Practise Grammar in Context: with answers: [оксфорд. живая грамматика: нач. Курс : учеб. пособие] / M. Harrison. Oxford : Oxford Univ. press, P ,
143 Интернет-ресурсы 1. Cambridge Dictionaries Online [Electronic resource] : the most popular online dictionary and thesaurus for learners of English. Cambridge University Press, Access of code : cambridge.org. Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 2. Study Learn.ru [Электронный ресурс] : все для тех, кому нужен англ. язык. Режим доступа : М., Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 3. Мультитран [Электронный ресурс] : электрон. словарь. Режим доступа : Загл. с экрана. 143
144 UNIT 4. STATE AND SOCIETY Topic 1. Countries and Cities 144 Reading 1. Study the Word List. busy оживленный (об улице) noisy шумный expensive дорогой ugly безобразный, уродливый polluted загрязненный dangerous опасный frightening устрашающий, пугающий traffic движение, транспорт survey опрос, анкетирование nationality национальность population население modern современный cosmopolitan city космополитический / многонациональный город be famous for быть известным / знаменитым чем-либо
145 2. Form the adverb from the adjective. Use a dictionary if necessary. Then make up collocations with the words. e.g. a good service, speak English well adjective good easy dangerous noisy expensive busy adverb well 3. Answer these questions, using the words from the Word List. 1. Have you traveled a lot of? 2. Where is better: to live in Russia or abroad? 3. Where is better: to live in a quiet town or a cosmopolitan city? 4. Where would you like to live? Why? 5. What should the best city be? 4. Read the text about top cities and do the tasks after it. Top Cities 1 Have you ever walked around a city and thought, this is Paradise? Or maybe, this is the ugliest, most polluted, dangerous, frightening place I ve ever been to and I can t wait to get out? Most of us have. And that s why most of us like to know about the place before we go there. «One thing we can do is to read a good guide book. Another is to look at a new survey conducted by William Mercer, one of the world s largest Human Resources consultancies. 1 Clare A., Wilson JJ. Total English. Students book. Intermediate. Pearson Education Limited, P
146 Mercer decided to judge some of the world's great cities. They produced their results by giving marks for various criteria. These included political, economic and social environment, healthcare, educational provision, recreation and transport infrastructure. So, which are the best cities to live in, and which should we avoid? In joint first place were Vancouver, Berne, Vienna and Zurich while Sydney, Geneva, Auckland and Copenhagen came second. Swiss cities occupied three of the top ten places, making it the single most successful country of all those surveyed. New York was used as the base city with a score of 100, which put it in 50th place. Overall, US cities suffered because of high crime rates. The highest ranked US city was Honolulu with 104 points. For Londoners, the news was not too bad. London was slightly ahead of New York with The report named London's good international relations as a positive point. Its poorest scores six out often were awarded for its climate and traffic. Bottom of the list was Brazzaville, in the Congo, where there has been a civil war for many years. Ken Livingstone, Mayor of London, last night said it was unfair to compare large international cities with small cities since the smaller ones were far easier to run. 'You have to look at cities of five million people plus. On that basis we're much better than Tokyo and New York, said Mr. Livingstone. 5. Answer these questions. 1. Who or what is William Mercer? 2. How did Mercer compare the cities? 3. Where did Zurich come in the results? 4. Which country did best in the survey? 5. What particular problem do US cities have, according to the survey? 6. What problems does London have? 7. Which city came bottom of the list and why? 8. Why is the survey unfair, according to Ken Livingstone? 146
147 6. Write the opposite meaning of the sentences. Replace the underlined words with the words from the box. Most beautiful, criminal, dangerous, faster, clearest, little, best, cheapest, exciting, busier, well, unfriendly, fast 1. This city is the ugliest place in the world. This city is the most beautiful place in the world. 2. Our street is very safe. 3. Here is the list of great cities. 4. I feel badly today. 5. These regions are the most polluted in our country. 6. Honolulu is a very friendly US city. 7. Which are the worst cities to live in? 8. It is the most expensive country of all. 9. A big city is quieter than a small town. 10. Paris has a lot of boring sights. 11. Traffic in London is slower than in Brighton. 12. You drive too slowly. 13. You are more friendly today. 7. Complete the table of countries, nationalities and languages. Then study this information and do exercises after it. Countries, nationalities and languages Country Nationality Language Argentina Argentinian Spanish Brazil Portuguese Britain British China Mandarin, Chinese Egypt Egyptian Arabic French French Germany German Greece Greek Greek Israel Israeli Hebrew Italy Italian 147
148 Окончание таблицы Country Nationality Language Japanese Japanese Korea Korean Mexico Mexican Spanish Poland Polish Polish Russia Russian Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Arabic Spanish Spanish Switzerland Swiss Swiss-German, French, Italian The United States USA American English Turkey Turkish 8. Underline the main stress in the words in the box and practise saying them. Brazilian Arabic Chinese Japan Italian Germany Japanese Austria Saudi Arabia Egyptian Korea Egypt 9. Make a few sentences with the words from the table above. You may give additional information if you know. e.g. I come from Argentina, so I am Argentinian and my first language is Spanish. The capital is Buenos Aires, which has a population of more than 10 million people. 10. Answer these questions, using the information from the table above What are three countries where the first language is English? 2. What language is spoken in Brazil? 3. What are three languages spoken in Switzerland? 4. What language is spoken in Saudi Arabia? 5. What nationality are people from Poland? 6. What language is spoken in Mexico? 7. Where do people speak Hebrew?
149 11. Study the information in the box. Write the regions of the world to the countries below. Europe (e.g. Britain, Spain, etc.) the Mediterranean (e.g. Italy, Spain, etc.) the Far East (e.g. China, Japan, etc.) the Middle East (e.g. Egypt, Iran, etc.) the Caribbean (e.g. Jamaica, Trinidad, etc.) South/Latin America (e.g. Brazil, Chile, etc.) 1. Germany Europe 2. Saudi Arabia 3. Jamaica 4. Corsica and Sardinia 5. Japan 6. Argentina 12. Study the information in the box and complete the sentences below with the name of the people from the country on the right. When we are talking about people from a particular country, nationalities ending in -i or -(i) an can be made plural with an s, but most others are formed with the definite article (and no s ). (The) Thais / Israelis / Brazilians / Russians are The French / the British are 1. I ve worked a lot with Germans / German people. 2. I ve spent lots of time with the French / French people. 3. We do a lot of business with I used to know a lot of. 5. I have always found.. very friendly. 6. People often say that... are reserved. 7. are very organised. 8. I met a lot of on my trip to Moscow. GERMANY FRANCE JAPAN ISRAEL BRAZIL BRITAIN SWITZERLAND RUSSIA 149
150 Grammar Comparison of Adjectives (See Grammar Reference) 13. Complete the table with the comparative or superlative form of the adjective. Positive Comparative Superlative good better the best busy modern bad hot cheap friendly safe expensive 14. Underline the correct word in brackets. 1. Tokyo is (bigger/ the biggest) than Berlin. 2. London is (more expensive / the most expensive) than Paris. 3. Oxford is one of (older than / the oldest) universities in Europe. 4. Rome was (hot / hotter) than I expected. 5. Madrid is much (modern / more modern) than I expected. 6. London is a very (cosmopolitan / the most cosmopolitan) city. 15. Match an adjective with its opposite. Which adjectives describe life in big cities? small cities? Compare them. fast modern expensive dangerous Adjective cheap slow friendly boring Opposite 150
151 busy unfriendly noisy exciting Adjective quiet old safe relaxing Окончание таблицы Opposite e.g. A big city is more expensive than a small one. A small city is safer than a big one. 16. Open the brackets to make comparative or superlative sentences. Web log 1 Day 24: Just finished my tour of Russia, which is (1) (big) country in the world and one of (2) (interesting) too. My flight was much (3) (comfortable) this time- big seats! Also, the service was (4) (good) than last time free food and drink! When I arrived in Warsaw, the people at Customs were (5) (friendly) than before (on my first trip I waited an hour while they checked my passport! Fortunately, Poland isn't as (6) (cold) as Moscow, which was freezing! This afternoon I had (7) (delicious) lunch of my trip so far: a Polish speciality called pieczen in a great restaurant in (8) (old) part of the city. 17. Write the correct form of the adjectives. 1. A: Life in the country is slower than city life. (slow) B: Yes, the city s much faster. (fast) 2. A: New York is Los Angeles. (safe) B: No, it isn t. New York is much. (dangerous) 1 Clare A., Wilson JJ. Op. cit. P
152 3. A: Seoul is Beijing. (big) B: No, it isn t. It s much. (small) 4. A: Madrid is Rome. (expensive) B: No, it isn t. Madrid is much. (cheap) 5. A: The buildings in Rome are the buildings in Prague. (modern) B: No, they aren t. They are much. (old) 6. A: Cafes in London are cafes in Paris. (good) B: No! Cafes in London are much. (bad) Listening 18a. Leroy is answering questions about his home town, London. Complete the questions with is or are and the correct words from the box. Then listen and check. ( 16) London, the restaurants, the people, the buildings, the night-life, the weather 1. What is London like? Well, it s a really exciting city! There s so much going on all the time. 2. What like? It s OK, and not very cold in winter, but people don t come here for the sunshine! 3. What like? They re very interesting. They come from all over the world. London s a very cosmopolitan city. 4. What like? Fantastic! Lots of them are historical and famous, but there are some wonderful modern ones, too. 5. What like? They re great! You can find food from every country in the world. 6. What like? Oh, it s amazing! There are so many clubs and theatres, and, of course, the music scene is fantastic! 18b. Work in pairs. Ask and answer the same questions about the city you are in now. 152
153 18c. Last year Leroy was Berlin, Tokyo and Detroit. Listen and complete the interview with him. ( 17) L = Leroy, I = Interviewer I: Do you travel a lot, Leroy? L: Oh yeah. I sing all over the world. Last year I was in Berlin, Tokyo oh, and of course, Detroit. I: And what are they? L: Well, they re all big, busy cities. Tokyo s the biggest and the. It s much than Berlin. I: And is it interesting? L: Well, they re all interesting, but, in fact, for me the interesting is Detroit. I: Really? Why? L: Well, in some ways, perhaps it isn t as interesting as the other two cites it doesn t have historical buildings, or, old Japanese temples but you see, Detroit is the birthplace of soul music and that s everything for me. I: I see. So Detroit s best for music. And what about food? Which is the city for food? L: Ah, the food. For me there s no question, Tokyo definitely has the delicious food I just love Japanese food! I: I see. Is it even than chicken satay? L: Ah, I don t know about that! 18d. Work in pairs. Compare some cities in your country. Speaking 19a. Work in pairs. Talk with your partner about your city. Ask and answer the questions: 1) What is it like? 2) How big is it? 3) Is it old or modern? 4) Is it very cosmopolitan? 5) Which nationalities live there? 6) What do you like and dislike in your city? 153
154 19b. Work with your partner. Compare two cities that you both know and answer the questions: Which one do you like better? Why? 20. Work in small groups. What do you think? 1. What do you like best about living in your country? 2. What would you miss if you lived abroad? 3. Do you know any foreigners living in your country? 4. What do they like about it? What do they find different? 5. What social problems are there in your country? 6. What are the causes of each of the problems? 7. What could be done to prevent or solve them? 8. Are there any institutions in Russia that help alleviate such problems? Writing 21. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Япония меньше, чем Китай. 2. Город Берлин не такой большой, как Токио. 3. Лондон это более дорогой город, чем Москва. 4. Этот район самый опасный в нашем городе. 5. Китай меньше, чем Россия, а Корея еще меньше. 6. Я покажу вам самые красивые и лучшие места нашего города. 22a. Read the text and complete it using the phrases from the box. a) where the Queen lives b) are much bigger c) see the Queen d) many cars on the streets 154
155 The City of My Dream London lies on the River Thames. A century ago London was the biggest city in the world, but now there are many cities which (1). London is famous for many things. Tourists come from all over the world to visit Buckingham Palace, (2), and the Houses of Parliament. They also come to visit its theatres, museums, and many shops. Like many big cities, London has problems with traffic and pollution. Over 1,000,000 people a day use the London Underground, but there are still too (3). The air isn t clear, but it is cleaner than it was 100 years ago. If I were in London I would ride on the big wheel next to the river and (4) at the ceremony. 22b. Write four paragraphs about your city. Begin each paragraph with the same words in bold as in the text about London. Write words. Paragraph 1. How big is it? Where is it? Paragraph 2. What is it famous for? Paragraph 3. Does it have any problems? Paragraph 4. What would you do if you were there? 155
156 Topic 2. Politics 156 Reading 1. Study the Word List. politics политика government правительство govern / rule / run the country править / управлять страной ruler / leader правитель, лидер monarchy монархия republic республика democracy демократия dictatorship диктатура political position политическая позиция representative представитель elections take place / are held выборы происходят, проводятся vote for голосовать за political party политическая партия economic policy экономическая / хозяйственная политика foreign policy внешняя политика
157 2. Complete the table. Use a dictionary if necessary. Verb General noun Person believe belief believer govern dictate rule politics voter leader 3. Answer the questions, using the words from the Word List. 1. What is your political position? 2. Do you take part in elections? 3. Do you belong to any political party? 4. Do you approve the government policy? 4. Read the text paying attention to the words in bold and do the task after it. Politics 1 Types of government Monarchy: a state ruled by a king or queen (= the king or queen has power and control). Some countries, e.g. the UK, have a monarchy, but the monarch is not the ruler. Republic: a state governed by representatives (= men or women chosen by the people) and a president, e.g. the USA or France. People who believe in this system are republicans. Democracy: a system of government in which leaders are chosen by the people, e.g. France or the United Kingdom. People who believe in this system are democrats. Dictatorship: a system of government in which one person rules the country (= one person has total power). This person is called a dictator. 1 Redman S. Op. cit. P
158 Political positions The government is very reactionary (= they don t want any changes). The opposition (= the main political party which is not in government) is more radical (= they want to make changes to the system). The Prime Minister is quite right-wing (= conservative/ capitalist), and the leader of the opposition is more left-wing (= socialist). Elections In a democracy, people vote for the political party they want to form the government. They do this in an election (= when everyone votes). Quite often elections take place/are held (= happen) every five years Government Political systems are different all over the world. In the UK, when a political party wins a majority (= 51 % or more) of seats (= official places in parliament) in an election, they are in power (= the government of the country), and their leader (= person in control of the party) becomes Prime Minister. The government must have policies (= programmes of action) to run (= manage and control) the country. This means, for example, an economic policy, and a foreign policy Write a synonym for each of these phrases. 1) a person in control of the party = a leader 2) men or women chosen by the people = 3) a system in which one person has total power = 4) the main political party which is not in government = 5) the selection when everyone votes = 6) programmes of action = 6. Complete these sentences with a suitable word. 1. About 42 % for the socialists in the election. 2. Every four/six years people a new president. 3. The election place next week, and the Liberals hope to form the next government. 4. The leader of is more radical.
159 5. The government have policies to the country. 6. Еhe is not the ruler in the UK. 7. Complete the table with the names of rulers and people who believe in this or that system. Types of government Rulers People who believe in 1) monarchy 2) republic 3) democracy 4) dictatorship 1) monarch 2) / 3) / 4) 8. Study the table and do the tasks below. 1) monarchist 2) 3) 4) Major English Speaking Countries Country Capital Type of government status Europe the United Kingdom of Great London a constitutional monarchy Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) Ireland Dublin a republic Gibraltar Gibraltar (City) a British colony Malta Valletta a republic America the United States of America Washington a federal republic, a union of 50 (the USA) states Canada Ottawa A federative state, a member of the Commonwealth headed by the British monarch Australia The Commonwealth of Australia (Australia) Canberra a federative state, a member of the Commonwealth headed by the Queen New Zealand Wellington an independent state, a member of the Commonwealth headed by the British Queen 159
160 9. Make a few sentences with the words from the table above. You may give additional information if you know. 10. Study the table and make sentences with these words. political system politician political party conservatism conservative conservative socialism socialist socialist social democracy social democrat democratic liberalism liberal liberal communism communist communist e.g. People who believe in social democracy are social democrats. It is a democratic government, with liberal beliefs. 11. Rewrite the sentences using the words on the right. The meaning must be the same. Make any necessary changes. 1. It s in every part of the world ALL It s all over the world. 2. Elections take place every five years.held Elections 3. The government is socialist WING The government is 4. I m a democrat.believe I 5. Who controls the country at the moment?.....power Who Fill the gaps in this text about the political system in the United Kingdom using the words from the box. votes Prime leader party policies vote majority elections 160
161 In the UK (1) take place every five years. The (2). Minister may decide to have one after four years, but five years is the maximum. The country is divided into 652 areas and people in each area can only (3). for one person from one political (4). The person with the most (5).. is the winner, and that person becomes one of the 652 members of parliament. The political party with a (6) of the seats in parliament then forms the government, and the (7) of that party becomes Prime Minister. His or her job is then to decide on a number of different (8) to run the country. Grammar First Conditional (See Grammar Reference) 13. Look at these hopes for the future. Make sentences using If, I ll. e.g. If I don t go out so much, I ll do more work. If I don t go out so much do more work pass my exams go to university study politics become a Prime Minister make my nation happy 161
162 14. Tick the correct sentence. 1 A. While I m in Washington, I ll see the White House B. While I ll in Washington, I ll see the White House 2 A. Before I vote for this party, I read its program B. Before I vote for this party, I ll read its program 3 A. If you change your political beliefs, you may become a social democrat B. If you will change your political beliefs, you may become a social democrat 4 A. When he gets to the Parliament, he will change the economic policy in our country B. When he ll get to the Parliament, he will change the economic policy in our country 15. Write the correct form of the verb in brackets. 1. If you go (go) to Ney York now, you will see (see) the president s elections. 2. After I (graduate from) the university, I (become) a famous politician. 3. When she (earn) much money, she (create) your own political party. 4. If he (win) the elections, he (become) a president. 5. If we (not hurry), we (be) late. 6. Everyone (be) very surprised if he (win) an election. 16. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Если ты будешь голосовать на выборах, то исполнишь свой гражданский долг (citizen duty). 2. Прежде чем вы уедете жить в Соединенное Королевство, изучите политическую систему этой страны. 3. Как только лидер нашей партии станет премьер-министром, мы сможем помочь многим безработным и бездомным людям. 162
163 4. Когда мы приедем в США, то обязательно увидим здание Конгресса. 5. Если вы хотите изучить политическое устройство США, то возьмите эту книгу. Listening 17a. Answer the questions. 1. Have you ever heard about Michio Kaku, Professor of Theoretical Physics at City University, New York? 2. Do you know that he has written a book Visions, which explains how science will revolutionize the 21 st century? 17b. Read the questions below the interviewer asked Michio Kaku. Discuss your opinions on these subjects. Are you optimistic about the future? Are we ready for the changes that will come? Is world population going to be a big problem? What will happen to people who don t have computers? Will there be a world government? Will we have control of everything? What are your reasons for pessimism? 17c. Listen to an interview with Michio Kaku. Make notes on his answers to the questions above. ( 18) 17d. Listen again and answer the questions. 1. What does Michio Kaku say will continue into the twentyfirst century? 2. How do some people react to the new technology? What is his reaction? 3. Why will the population of the world stop increasing? 4. Why will we need a world government? 163
164 5. What are some of the things we will be able to control? 6. What examples does he give of the behavior of stupid people? Speaking 18. Work in pairs: ask and answer the questions. Tell your partner about the political system in your own country. 1. Which are the main political parties in your country? 2. Which party is in power at the moment? 3. When were they elected? 4. Did you vote in this election? 5. Who is the leader of this party? 6. Who is the President of your country? 7. Do you think you are left-wing, right-wing, or in the centre? 8. Do you think your political beliefs have changed/will change during your life? Writing 19. Finish the following sentences. 1. The main political party 2. The leader of this party 3. The president of the country 4. If you change your political beliefs 5. Elections take place every 6. The government is 7. People vote for 8. Prime Minister 9. People who believe in 20. Write a short composition where you should describe any type of the government you want (not more than 100 words). 164
165 Topic 3. Bureaucracy Reading 1. Study the Word List. bureaucracy бюрократия officials/bureaucrats бюрократ, чиновник fill in a form заполнять форму identity card (ID card) удостоверение личности driving licence водительское удостоверение birth certificate свидетельство o рождении exam certificate сертификат о прохождении экзамена marriage certificate свидетельство о браке visa runs out/expires срок действия визы заканчивается renew обновлять enrolment form/a registration form регистрационный бланк sign an application form подписывать заявление 2a. Match the words to make collocations. apply for cancel deny smb. extend / renew get / receive grant / issue a visa a marriage certificate a driving licence an identity card a birth certificate an exam certificate 165
166 2b. Work in pairs. Say how many of these documents above you have. Make up sentences using the collocations from the previous task Answer the questions before reading the text. 1. Have you ever filled in any forms? What are they? 2. Have you got any certificates? 3. Have you ever got visa? Was it difficult to get? 4. How do you find bureaucracy in your country? 4. Read the text paying attention to the words in bold and do the task after it. Bureaucracy 1 Bureaucracy is the rules used by officials (or bureaucrats) to control an organisation or country. It is often used in a negative way to mean unnecessary rules, e.g. filling in (= completing) forms, and waiting for documents. (= pieces of paper with official information) Important documents (e.g. passport): identity card a card with your name, date of birth and photo to show who you are; driving licence the official document which permits you to drive on public roads; visa a document which gives you permission to enter, pass through or leave a country. Officials often check (= look at and examine) your documents, e.g. customs officials check your passport or identity card, and the police may check your driving licence. We also use the word certificates for official pieces of paper stating certain facts: a birth certificate gives the important facts about your birth; exam certificates state you have passed certain exams; a marriage certificate states you have married. Some documents are for a fixed period of time, e.g. a visa may be for six months. At the end of that period, the visa runs out 1 Redman S. Op. cit. P. 176.
167 (infml)/expires (fml) (= it finishes/comes to an end). If you want to stay in the country, you must renew it (= get a new one for a further period of time). You can normally renew a visa, a passport, a membership card for a club, etc. There are situations where you need to fill in (= complete) forms: landing card a form you may have to fill in when you enter another country; enrolment form/a registration form a form you often have to fill in when you join a school or course; application form a form where you write details about yourself, often when applying for a job. With many forms, you will need to sign them (= write your signature) and print your full name underneath. (= under it) Forms often contain formal expressions. In spoken English, this may be different. 5. Decide if the statements are true or false. 1. Bureaucracy is often used in a negative way to mean unnecessary rules. 2. An identity card is a card which gives you permission to enter, pass through or leave a country. 3. A birth certificate gives the important facts about your birth. 4. All documents are for a fixed period of time. 5. If you want to stay in the country, you must renew your visa. 6. A landing card is a form you may have to fill in when you leave a country. 7. An application form a form where you write details about yourself 8. Forms often contain informal expressions. 6. Complete these sentences with a suitable word. 1. Will you need to get a visa if you go to the United States? 2. I was surprised that nobody my passport when we arrived in France. 3. Could you in this form for me, please? 167
168 4. They sent the form back to me because I forgot to it at the bottom. 5. A: Do I have to put my at the bottom of this form? B: Yes, please and then print your full name underneath. 6. A: I only had a visa for six months and it next week. B: Are you going to it? A: Yes, if I can. I don t think it ll be a problem. 7. Write your first name here and your underneath. 8. I want to do a course, so I wrote to the school and asked them to send a (n) form. 7. Match the expressions and questions. 1) first name 2) surname 3) date of birth 4) place of birth 5) permanent address 6) marital status 7) occupation 8) qualifications 9) hobbies/interests 10) tel. no. a) Are you married or single? b) What do you do in your free time? c) What s your phone number? d) What s your first name? e) What do you do? f) Where were you born? g) When were you born? h) What s your family name? i) Where do you live? j) What degrees, diplomas, certificates, etc. do you have? 8. Rewrite these sentences in more informal English. What s your date of birth? When were you born? What s your country of origin?? What s your marital status?? What was your date of arrival?? When s your date of departure?? 168
169 Grammar Second Conditional (See Grammar Reference) 9. Put the verbs in the correct form. 1. If I were (be) rich, I would travel (travel) round the world. First I (go) to Canada, then I (go) to New York. 2. If he (study) harder, he (pass) the exam and (get) an exam certificate. 3. I (go) to London, if I (get) a visa. 4. If you (show) your identity card, you (not be) at the police station now. 5. If he (work) harder, he (have) more money. 6. If I (can) speak perfect English, I (not be) in this classroom. 7. What you (do) if a stranger (give) you $1 million? 10. Give advice using If I were you, I d. 1. I found a passport in the street. If I were you, I d take it to the nearest police station. 2. I forgot my driving licence at home. 3. My visa runs out. 4. I can t fill in the landing card. I don t know English well. 5. I never have enough money. 6. I really need to do more exercise. 11a. Read about the global village and complete the sentences below with the verbs in the box. Would live, would be (x3), would control, wouldn t have (x2), would die, wouldn t know, would have (x2) The Global Village The world currently has a population of over 6 ½ billion, and it is growing by over 200,000 every day. 10 countries now each have 169
170 more than 100 million people. And China and India both have over a billion. Such big numbers aren t very easy to imagine. But what if we imagined the population of the world as a village of just 100 people? What would this global village be like? If the world were a village of 100 people 1) there 60 Asians, 14 Africans, 12 Europeans, 8 Latin Americans, 5 North Americans, and 1from the South Pacific. 2) 51 male and 49 female. 3) 80 would live in poor housing. 4) 50 enough food. 5) 24 any electricity. (And most of the other 76 would only use it at night.) 6) 17 how to read. 7) 7 access to the Internet. 8) 5 32 % of the village s money. 9) only 1 a college education. 10) 1 person every year, but 2 babies would be born. 11b. Ask and answer questions about the global village with a partner. How many people be women? How many people live in poor housing? everybody have enough food? most people have electricity? How many people be very rich? most people have access to the Internet? 12. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 1. Если бы я был политиком, я бы всегда говорил правду (tell the truth). 2. Если бы у меня было время, я бы помог вам. 3. Если бы ты нашел свои водительские права, мы бы уже были дома. 4. Если бы у него была виза, он бы смог поехать в Детройт. 170
171 5. Если бы ты вовремя заполнил бланк, у тебя бы не было таких проблем. Listening 13a. What do you do at a crossroads? What do you think the expression at a crossroads in life means? Can you give any examples? 13b. Listen to three people who have reached a crossroads in their lives. Complete the chart. ( 19) Andy Lucy Maureen What has happened? What choices do they have? 13c. Listen again and check your answers. What reasons do they have for and against their possible choices? Andy Lucy Maureen For reasons Against reasons 13d. Write your answers to these question. e.g. If I were Andy I would If I were at a crossroads I would 1. What would you do if you were Andy? 2. What would you do if you were Lucy? 3. What would you do if you were Maureen? 4. What would you do at a crossroads? 171
172 13e. Listen to Andy, Lucy, and Maureen a year later. Were you right? ( 20) Speaking 14. Work in pairs. Read the problems people usually have with bureaucracy. Have you had any problems? If so, name them and compare. 1. Delays, e.g. in getting a new passport. 2. Officials put the wrong information on documents, which then need to be changed, e.g. driving license. 3. Officials lose information you have given them. 4. Different officials ask you to explain the same information over and over again, especially over the telephone. 5. You spend a long time to get a document in the country, and then you discover that nobody is interested in it when you arrive in another country. 6. Officials who behave like policemen. Writing 15. Fill in the form in capital letters. Then compare the information on your form with other students. The Global School of English Mr/Mrs/Ms Surname First name Sex Date of birth Nationality First language Level of English Address in your country Occupation address Reason for learning English: Business/pleasure/exams/other Signature 172
173 Texts for Reading and Discussions Text A 1. Close your eyes and think of the United States. Write down the first five things you think of. Then compare your list with other students. e.g. 1. The Empire State Building; Read the introduction to the magazine article in the box and predict what the text will be about. Living in the USA 1 The people of the United States are nearly all immigrants, or descendants of immigrants. It is a young country, and much of the population has relatives who live in other parts of the world. But how do they find the US when they first arrive? What do they think of the people, the culture, the way of life? Jamie Peterson spoke to three of them. 3. Work in three groups: read the part of the article and answer the questions. Group A. Read about Roberto. Group В. Read about Endre. Group С. Read about Yuet Tung. Questions: 1. Why and when did he/she come to the US? 2. What does he/she do? 3. What does he/she like about living in the US? 4. What was difficult at the beginning? 1 Soars J., Soars L. Op. cit. P
174 174 Roberto Solano aged 24, from Mexico Roberto came from Acapulco to New York ten years ago. At first he missed everything the sunshine, the food, his girlfriend. But now he has a successful business with his three brothers and his sister. They run a soccer store in New Brunswick. Roberto's girlfriend is now his wife, and they have two children who go to American schools. When asked why he came to the US, Roberto says without hesitation, 'Because I want to work hard and be successful.' He certainly works hard. He's at the store all day, then works as a driver in the evening. 'That's why I like America,' he says. 'You can be what you want.' 'When l first came here, I didn't speak the language, and it was winter. It was so cold! There was snow! Now nearly all my family are here, not only in New York, but also in California, and in Texas. We meet about once a month and have a huge Mexican meal that takes about five hours! We're all happy here'. Endre Boros aged 45, from Hungary Endre is a mathematician at Rutgers University, New Jersey. He came from Budapest thirteen years ago. 'I had an opportunity to come here for two years.' After a year, his wife came to join him, and since then they've had a daughter, so they decided to stay. 'At first it was very strange. Everything is so big here,' he says. 'I started to feel happy when I bought a car. Now I go everywhere by car. In Hungary, we only use the car at weekends, but here your car is part of your life. Nobody walks anywhere.' How does he find the people? 'Very friendly. The first question everybody asks you is Where are you from? People talk to you here, they start conversations. I like the fact that there are people from all over the world.' What about the way of life? 'The thing I like best is the independence. Nobody tells me what to do. Here you can do what
175 you want, so you learn to make decisions for yourself. I feel in control. Yuet Tung aged 31, from Hong Kong Yuet Tung is her Chinese name, but in English she's known as Clara. She came to the US eight years ago and studied fine art. Now she work son Madison Avenue for a publisher. She married a Vietnamese American three years ago, and they live in Long island. They don't have any children yet. What does she think of living in New York? It's very similar to Hong Kong. It's a busy city, very exciting, and people walk very fast! I like the stores here. They're huge, and it s cheaper than Hong Kong. But you need a car here, in Hong Kong everyone uses public transportation, because it's good and it's cheap. At first I hated driving here, but it s OK now. What does she like best? The space. Here I live in a house with a yard. In Hong Kong it is so crowded. And the people are friendly. When I go jogging, everyone says Hi! And the food is from every country in the world. 4. Find a partner from each of the other two groups. Exchange the information. Then answer the questions below and compare your answers. 1. What do the people have in common? 2. Are they all happy living in the US? 3. Who has other members of their family living there? 4. Do they all have children? 5. Who married someone from their own country? 6. What do Roberto and Endre like about the US? 7. What do they say about their own country? 8. Do they like the people? 9. What do they say about Americans and their cars? 175
176 Text B 1. Read the text and then answer the question. Do you think London is the most diverse city in the world? Why? London: the world in one city 1 Leo Benedictus spent months interviewing the immigrant communities that give the city of London its vitality and, more importantly, its food! New York and Toronto may think they are more cosmopolitan, but London in the 21st century is certainly the most diverse city ever. This is one of the reasons why it was chosen to host the 2012 Olympic Games. More than 300 languages are spoken by the people of London, and it has 50 nationalities with populations of more than 10,000. Why is this? Firstly, London is a place of business. Londoners have the fewest bank holidays in Europe and work the longest hours. People come for jobs and money. But that is not why they stay. Language is one reason. Fluency in English is a great gift for their children. Another surprising reason is the character of the London people. They are not as friendly as some other nationalities. But this has advantages people leave you alone, and you are free to live your own life. Finally, the most delicious reason is food. You can have dinner in more than 70 different nationalities of restaurant any night of the week. Londoners' enthusiasm for foreign food creates thousands of jobs for new communities. All Londoners, old and new, have the same principles. They work hard, love their children, and move out of the city centre as soon as they can afford it! Soars, J., Soars L. Op. cit. P
177 2. Divide into two groups (A and B), read your texts and answer the questions to them. Group A: Read text a) and c). Group B: Read text b) and d). The questions to the texts: 1. What are the people in the texts? Where are they? What are they doing? 2. What nationality are they? 3. Are/Were there any problems between nationalities? 4. What food is mentioned? What s it like? a) Posh Daddy from Nigeria Posh Daddy is the manager of the Big Choice Barber's on Peckham High Street. It is a West Indian and African hairdresser's. These two black communities haven't always got on well together. 'When I first came here, we just wanted to be accepted by the West Indian community, but they weren't very friendly,' he says. 'Now it is getting better. These days most of my West Indian brothers in the barber's like eating African food like me, pepper soup and кикирака, which is chicken with coconut very hot and spicy.' b) Staff in the kitchen of the Asadal 'This restaurant was a little bit of Korea brought into a very English town/ says Young-il Park, the manager of the Asadal restaurant in New Maiden. The Asadal is famous for its kimchisalty, spicy chilli peppers and vegetables. Young-il's father opened the Asadal in 1991 the first Korean restaurant in the town. Youngil was the only Korean in his school. 'The thing I noticed most was that people stared,' he says. 'Now you see a lot of Koreans here.' c) The staff in the Yasar Halim Bakery Yasar Halim, a Turkish grocer's and baker's, is known all over London. It was opened in Green Lanes in 1981 by Mr. Halim, a Turkish Cypriot. At that time, no one was selling food from his homeland. Now the shop is famous for its baklava, a sweet cake 177
178 made with nuts and honey. The shop is very busy, and the staff working there both Turkish and Greek Cypriote look like they're having a great time together. In their homeland of Cyprus, there are still problems between the two communities. But in this area of London, they live together as good neighbours. d) Portuguese football fans in the FC Porto Fan Club in Stockwell 'Football is a passion for us,' says Jose Antonio Costa, the president of the Porto Fan Club which meets in Stockwell. 'Many people come for friendship you know, in a foreign country, you feel more comfortable with your own people.' Eric Santos, the owner of Santos's cafe near the club, says, 'People come for my wife's bacalhau- salted cod, made with potatoes and onions. Delicious!' There is quite a big Portuguese-speaking community here, from Portugal, Brazil and Madeira, but they do not always stick together. 'Everyone looks after their own interests.' The Portuguese and the Madeirans, in particular, are very separate groups in London, because Madeira wants independence from Portugal. 3. Work with a partner from the other group. Compare your answers and discuss the following questions: Why do so many nationalities choose to live in London? 2. Are there any groups of foreigners living in your town? 3. Where do they come from? 4. What do they find different? 5. Do they mix with other groups, or keep themselves apart? 4. Work in pairs. Mark if the following statements are true or false. 1. London is more cosmopolitan than Toronto. 2. New York is the most diverse city ever. 3. Londoners don't work as hard as people in other cities. 4. Immigrants want their children to learn English. 5. Londoners are the friendliest people in the world. 6. Londoners only like eating English food. 7. Most Londoners want to leave the city eventually.
179 Stop and Check 4 Do the tasks below. There are two points for each correct answer. 1. Complete the sentences with the words from the box. elections, visa, exam, certificate, city, landing card 1. Could you fill in the? 2. When you pass your exams you ll get an. 3. Will you need to get a if you go to the United States? 4. Do you vote in the every four / five / six years? 5. Tokyo is a more organized. 2. Underline the correct word in brackets. 6. The city has 50 (people / nationalities) with populations of more than 10, Prime Minister runs the economic and foreign (politics / policy) in the country. 8. If he wins the elections, he ll become a (lawyer / president). 9. If my visa ran out I would (throw / renew) it. 10. Where is your birth (card / certificate)? 11. At the (elections / Parliament) people vote for the political party. 12. I am looking for a job, so I ve sent them an (registration / application) form. 13. Don t forget to (correct / sign) your application form underneath. 14. Elections (have / take) place every five years. 15. Policemen often (sign / check) your driving licence. 3. Write the last three letters in each word. 16. Buenos Aires has a populat of more than 10 million people. 179
180 17. Democr is a system of government in which leaders are chosen by the people 18. Ident card is a card with your name, date of birth and photo to show who you are. 19. Driving lice is the official document which permits you to drive on public roads. 20. A birth certific gives the important facts about your birth. 4. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word from the brackets. 21. Tokyo is (bigger / the biggest) than Madrid. 22. Oxford is one of (older than / the oldest) cities in Europe. 23. If he wins the elections, he (become / will become) a president. 24. I would go to London, if I (get / got) a visa. 25. I (go / will go) to Madrid, if I get a visa. 26. If you ask them, they (help / will help) you. 27. Madrid is (expensive than / more expensive than) Rome. 28. Cafes in London are (bad than / worse than) cafes in Paris. 29. I ll call you when I (arrive / will arrive). 30. If I were you I (will attend / would attend) the interview Tick the correct sentence. 31. A: Life in the country is slower than city life. B: Life in the country is slow than city life. 32. A: Before I vote for a social party, I know its program. B: Before I vote for a social party, I ll know its program. 33. A: If you showed youridentity card, you would not be at the police station now. B: If you show youridentity card, you would not be at the police station now. 34. A: Could you write in this form for me, please? B: Could you fill in this form for me, please? 35. A: Tokyo is more organized New York. B: Tokyo is more organized than New York.
181 6. Put the words in the correct order. 36. do / Where / people / English / speak? 37. is / New York /city / a diverse. 38. you / When / were / born? 39. took / my / I / passport / with me. 40. What / do / know / you / languages? 7. Read the story about Al Brown. Mark if the following statements are true or false. Street News. Al s Story Al Brown, 31, from a small town in Pennsylvania, USA, had his own delivery business for five years. When he lost it, he also lost his home and his family. He now sleeps on the streets in New York. Street News is a magazine that is sold by homeless people in the city. Selling newspapers gives them a small income, so they can begin to save money for somewhere to live. J: How long have you been selling Street News? A: For a year. It was very cold at first, but after a while you get used to it. J: Why did you come to New York? A: I came here to look for work, and I never left. J: How long have you been sleeping on the streets? A: For six months. I'm outside the subway station seven days a week selling the magazine. J: Have you made any friends? A: Lots. But I get fed up with people who think I drink or take drugs. My problem is I'm homeless. I want a job, but I need somewhere to live before I can get a job. So I need money to get somewhere to live, but J: How many copies do you sell a day? A: Usually about 70. But I've brought 100 with me. J: How many copies have you sold today? A: So far, ten. But it's still early. Here, take one! 181
182 41. Only homeless people sell Street Newsin the city. 42. Al Brown came to New York to sell the magazine. 43. For this difficult year Al has made few friends. 44. Al Brown cannot get a job because he is homeless. 45. He usually sells 100 copies a day. 8. Translate the sentences from Russian into English. 46. Монархия это государство, управляемое королем или королевой. 47. В Соединенном Королевстве выборы проходят каждые пять лет. 48. Полицейские могут проверить ваши водительские права. 49. Заявление это форма, где вы пишите информацию о себе, когда устраиваетесь на работу. 50. Кто является президентом вашей страны? Total Score: 100 LITERATURE (Библиографический список) Основная литература 1. Качалова, К. Н. Практическая грамматика английского языка с упражнениями и ключами / К. Н. Качалова, Е. Е. Израилевич. Москва : ЮНВЕС : Лист, С , , Дополнительная литература 1. Harrison, M. Oxford Living Grammar: Pre-Intermediate: Lean and Practise Grammar in Context: with answers: [оксфорд. живая грамматика: нач. Курс : учеб. пособие] / M. Harrison. Oxford : Oxford Univ. press, P , Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use: A Self-Study Referens and Practice Book for Intermediate Students with Answers / R. Murphy. 2-nd ed. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ. Press, P
183 Интернет-ресурсы 1. Cambridge Dictionaries Online [Electronic resource] : the most popular online dictionary and thesaurus for learners of English. Cambridge University Press, Access of code : cambridge.org. Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 2. Study Learn.ru [Электронный ресурс] : все для тех, кому нужен англ. язык. Режим доступа : Москва, Загл. с экрана. Яз. англ. 3. Мультитран [Электронный ресурс] : электрон. словарь. Режим доступа : Загл. с экрана. 183
184 UNIT 5. COMPANIES Topic 1. Forms of Business Organization 184 Reading 1. Study the Word List. make a profit получать прибыль, наживаться sole proprietorship индивидуальное частное предприятие partnership компания, товарищество cooperation корпорация, акционерное общество share акция, доля, пай share the money поделить деньги shareholder акционер; пайщик, владелец акций run a business управлять торговым предприятием headquarters главное управление, центр; центральный орган (какой-либо организации) charity благотворительная организация liability обязательство, ответственность borrow money занимать деньги conduct business вести бизнес provide smb. with goods снабдить кого-либо товарами deliver goods доставлять товары
185 2. Complete the table. Use a dictionary to help you. Verb General noun Person Provide provision provider Deliver Own Produce Operate 3. Make up sentences. This company Companies produce (s) deliver (s) provide (s) goods paper humanitarian aid mail services products to consumers 4. Answer the questions before reading the text. 1. Can you name five of the world-known companies? 2. What are the main areas of their activity? 3. Can you name three different industries? 5. Read the text paying attention to the words in bold and do the tasks after it. What sort of company is it? 1 A company (UK) or corporation (US) is a form of business organization operating to make a profit. There are three principal forms of business organization: the sole proprietorship, the partnership, the corporation. The simplest form of business organization is the sole proprietorship, which is owned by one person. The owner has relatively unlimited control over the business and keeps all the profit. These firms 1 Липка-Ким Ю. А., Соловьева И. Н., Эмирзиади Е. С. Английский язык в профессиональной сфере. Чита : ЗабГУ, С
186 are usually owned by one person who has day-to-day responsibility for running the business. Sole proprietorship is the most numerous form of business organization. In a partnership, two or more people share ownership of a single business. Like proprietorship, the law does not distinguish between the business and its owners. The partners should have a legal agreement that sets forth how decisions will be made, profits will be shared, disputes will be resolved, how future partners will be admitted to the partnership, how partners can be bought out, or what steps will be taken to dissolve the partnership when needed. A corporation is charted by the state in which it has headquarters. It is considered by law to be a unique entity, separate and apart from those who own it. A corporation can be taxed; it can be sued; it can enter into contractual agreements. The owners of corporation are its shareholders. The shareholders elect a board of directors to oversee the major policies and decisions. The corporation has a life of its own and does not dissolve when ownership changes. Companies are involved in many activities. For example buying, selling, marketing and production, in a range of different industries or business sectors, such as information technology, telecommunications, film, and car manufacture and so on. Understanding financial performance is an often neglected skill among managers, but it is a vital one. Finance, financial statements analysis and financial reporting provide important insights into business performance, resource allocation and time management. 6. Answer the questions: 1. What are the three principal forms of business organization? 2. What is a sole proprietorship? 3. What are the main positive and negative features of a sole proprietorship? 4. What is a partnership? 5. What should partners have to be able to run their business? 6. What is a corporation? 7. Who are the owners of a corporation? 8. Who oversees the major policies and decisions in a corporation? 186
187 7. Match the types of business organizations on the left with the definitions on the right 1. 1) charity a) an organization which is part of the state administration 2) cooperative b) a company whose shares are publicly available 3) enterprise c) a company which owns another 4) government agency d) a firm where shareholders liability is limited 5) holding company e) a firm based in a tax heaven to avoid higher taxation 6) limited company f) an organization to relieve poverty, advance religion or education, etc; benefits from some financial concessions 7) minority interest g) two or more partners working together for profit, without limited liability 8) multinational h) a company owned by the state 9) nationalized company i) a friendly association of people 10) offshore company j) a firm, usually without commercial activity, created to be parent to other companies 11) parent company k) a new commercial activity 12) partnership l) a company whose shares are not publicly available 13) private company m) firm owned by a parent company 14) public company n) company in which another firm has less than a 50 % of interest 15) society o) an organization operating in several countries 16) subsidiary (affiliate) p) a democratic firm owned by its workers 8. Underline the odd word in each group 2. Example: type of organization: limited company cooperative donation 1 Lees G., Thorne T. English on Business. Chancerel Internatonal Publishers Ltd P Business Goals 3. Unit 14 Cambridge University Press P
188 1. public limited investment shareholders donors company: 2. money that profit donations investment people put in: 3. staff: volunteers employees shareholders 4. limited board of go shares profit company: vernors 5. charity: donors investors surplus 6. trust: council of trustees shares board of governors 9. Match the information about these multinational companies to the correct company logo 1. Company logo Company activities The company says 1. The third largest record company in the world. It s also the world s largest publisher of songs and music a we are committed to providing high quality food 2. The world s largest hamburger restaurant company. It has over 19,000 restaurants in 100 countries 3. This company provides news and financial data to the business community 4. This company is an international air-express carrier. It delivers packages and documents all over the world b (We) lead the world in provision of news and financial information to broadcasters, newspapers, financial markets and on-line services c We aim to be the world s premier music company in all aspects of our business d We keep our promises Robbins S. First Insights into Business (St s book). Pearson Education Limited, P. 15.
Раздел 1. ЧТЕНИЕ Прочитай текст. Определи, какие из приведенных ниже утверждений 5 7 соответствуют его содержанию (1 True), а какие не соответствуют (2 False). Обведи номер выбранного ответа. My brother
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